Goldfish Card for V A Bain

Goldfish Card for V A Bain

Goldfish Card for V A Bain

Here we see V.A. Bain's membership card for the Goldfish Club, a club for airmen who had saved their lives by using their emergency dinghy. Bain used his dinghy after being shot down on 1 May 1944 off the coast of Norway.

Many thanks to Colin Bain, whose father Victor Albert Bain flew with No.143 Squadron, for sending us these pictures.

A huge gift box holds some surprises for Chudleigh

Music: Original by Mike Hughes-Chamberlain

This card has optional greetings: Happy Birthday!, Happy Belated Birthday!, You're Invited!

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1690 to 1900 Edit

Barclays traces its origins back to 17 November 1690, when John Freame, a Quaker, and Thomas Gould, started trading as goldsmith bankers in Lombard Street, London. The name "Barclays" became associated with the business in 1736, when Freame's son-in-law James Barclay became a partner. [7] In 1728, the bank moved to 54 Lombard Street, identified by the 'Sign of the Black Spread Eagle', which in subsequent years would become a core part of the bank's visual identity. [8]

The Barclay family were connected with slavery, both as proponents and opponents. David and Alexander Barclay were engaged in the slave trade in 1756. [9] David Barclay of Youngsbury (1729–1809), on the other hand, was a noted abolitionist, and Verene Shepherd, the Jamaican historian of diaspora studies, singles out the case of how he chose to free his slaves in that colony. [10]

In 1776, the firm was styled "Barclay, Bevan and Bening" and remained so until 1785, when another partner, John Tritton, who had married a Barclay, was admitted, and the business then became "Barclay, Bevan, Bening and Tritton". [11] In 1896, several banks in London and the English provinces, notably Backhouse's Bank of Darlington [12] and Gurney's Bank of Norwich (both of which also had their roots in Quaker families), united under the banner of Barclays and Co., a joint-stock bank. [13]

1900 to 1945 Edit

Between 1905 and 1916, Barclays extended its branch network by making acquisitions of small English banks. Further expansion followed in 1918 when Barclays amalgamated with the London, Provincial and South Western Bank, and in 1919, when the British Linen Bank was acquired by Barclays, although the British Linen Bank retained a separate board of directors and continued to issue its own banknotes (see Banknotes of the pound sterling). [14]

In 1925, the Colonial Bank, National Bank of South Africa and the Anglo-Egyptian Bank were amalgamated and Barclays operated its overseas operations under the name Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas)—Barclays DCO. [15] In 1938, Barclays acquired the first Indian exchange bank, the Central Exchange Bank of India, which had opened in London in 1936 with the sponsorship of Central Bank of India. [16]

In 1941, during the German occupation of France, a branch of Barclays in Paris, headed by Marcel Cheradame, worked directly with the invading force. [17] Senior officials at the bank volunteered the names of Jewish employees, as well as ceding an estimated one hundred Jewish bank accounts to the German occupiers. [18] The Paris branch used its funds to increase the operational power of a large quarry that helped produce steel for the Germans. There was no evidence of contact between the head office in London and the branch in Paris during the occupation. Marcel Cheradame was kept as the branch manager until he retired in the sixties. [17]

1946 to 1980 Edit

In May 1958, Barclays was the first UK bank to appoint a female bank manager. Hilda Harding managed Barclays' Hanover Square branch in London until her retirement in 1970. [19]

In 1965, Barclays established a US affiliate, Barclays Bank of California, in San Francisco. [20] [21]

Barclays launched the first credit card in the UK, Barclaycard, in 1966. On 27 June 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash machine, in Enfield. [22] [23] The British actor Reg Varney was the first person to use the machine. [23]

In 1969, a planned merger with Martins Bank and Lloyds Bank was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, but the acquisition of Martins Bank on its own was later permitted. Also that year, the British Linen Bank subsidiary was sold to the Bank of Scotland in exchange for a 25% stake, a transaction that became effective from 1971. Barclays DCO changed its name to Barclays Bank International in 1971. [15]

From 1972 until 1980, a minority stake in Banca Barclays Castellini SpA, Milan was owned by the Castellini family. In 1980, Barclays Bank International acquired the remaining stake in Barclays Castellini from the Castellini family. [24]

In August 1975, following the secondary banking crash, Barclays acquired Mercantile Credit Company. [25]

1980 to 2000 Edit

In 1980, Barclays Bank International expanded its business to include commercial credit and took over American Credit Corporation, renaming it Barclays American Corporation. [26]

During 1985 [27] Barclays Bank and Barclays Bank International merged, and as part of the corporate reorganisation the former Barclays Bank plc became a group holding company, [15] renamed Barclays Group Plc, [27] and UK retail banking was integrated under the former BBI, and renamed Barclays Bank PLC from Barclays Bank Limited. [15]

In 1986 Barclays sold its South African business operating under the Barclays National Bank name after protests against Barclays' involvement in South Africa and its apartheid government. Also that year Barclays bought de Zoete & Bevan and Wedd Durlacher (formerly Wedd Jefferson) [28] to form Barclays de Zoete Wedd (BZW), now known as the Barclays Investment Bank, and to take advantage of the Big Bang on the London Stock Exchange. [29]

Barclays introduced the Connect card in June 1987, the first debit card in the United Kingdom. [30] [31]

In 1988, Barclays sold Barclays Bank of California, which at that time was the 17th-largest bank in California measured by assets, to Wells Fargo for US$125 million in cash. [32]

Edgar Pearce, the "Mardi Gra Bomber", began a terror campaign against the bank and the supermarket chain Sainsbury's in 1994. [33]

In 1996, Barclays bought Wells Fargo Nikko Investment Advisors (WFNIA) and merged it with BZW Investment Management to form Barclays Global Investors. [34]

Two years later, in 1998, the BZW business was broken up and parts were sold to Credit Suisse First Boston: Barclays retained the debt business which formed the foundation of what is now Barclays Capital. [35]

In 1999, in an unusual move as part of the trend at the time for free ISPs, Barclays launched an internet service called this entity was acquired by British Telecom in 2001. [36]

In August 2000, Barclays took over the recently de-mutualised Woolwich PLC, formerly the Woolwich Building Society, [37] in a £5.4 billion acquisition. Woolwich thus joined the Barclays group of companies, and the Woolwich name was retained after the acquisition. The company's head office remained in Bexleyheath, south-east London, four miles (6 km) from the original head office in Woolwich. [38]

21st century Edit

In 2001 Barclays closed 171 branches in the UK, many of them in rural communities: Barclays called itself "The Big Bank" but this name was quickly given a low profile after a series of embarrassing PR stunts. [39]

On 31 October 2001, Barclays and CIBC agreed to combine their Caribbean operations to establish a joint venture company known as FirstCaribbean International Bank (FCIB). [40]

In 2003, Barclays bought the American credit card company Juniper Bank from CIBC, re-branding it as "Barclays Bank Delaware". [41] The same year saw the acquisition of Banco Zaragozano, the 11th-largest Spanish bank. [42]

Barclays took over sponsorship of the Premier League from Barclaycard in 2004. [43] In May 2005, Barclays moved its group headquarters from Lombard Street in the City of London to One Churchill Place in Canary Wharf. Also in 2005 Barclays sealed a £2.6bn takeover of Absa Group Limited, South Africa's largest retail bank, acquiring a 54% stake on 27 July 2005. [44]

Then in 2006, Barclays purchased the HomEq Servicing Corporation for US$469 million in cash from Wachovia Corp. [45] That year also saw the acquisition of the financial website CompareTheLoan [46] and Barclays announcing plans to rebrand Woolwich branches as Barclays, migrating Woolwich customers onto Barclays accounts and migrating back-office processes onto Barclays systems—the Woolwich brand was to be used for Barclays mortgages. [47] Barclays also exited retail-banking operations in the Caribbean-region which extended as far back as 1837 through selling of its joint venture stake in FirstCaribbean International Bank (FCIB) to CIBC for between $989 million and $1.08 billion. [48]

Abandoned merger with ABN AMRO Edit

In March 2007, Barclays announced plans to merge with ABN AMRO, the largest bank in the Netherlands. [49] [50] However, on 5 October 2007 Barclays announced that it had abandoned its bid, [51] citing inadequate support by ABN shareholders. Fewer than 80% of shares had been tendered to Barclays' cash-and-shares offer. [52] This left the consortium led by Royal Bank of Scotland free to proceed with its counter-bid for ABN AMRO. [53]

To help finance its bid for ABN AMRO, Barclays sold a 3.1% stake to China Development Bank and a 3% stake to Temasek Holdings, the investment arm of the Singaporean government. [54]

Also in 2007, Barclays agreed to purchase Equifirst Corporation from Regions Financial Corporation for US$225 million. [55] That year also saw Barclays Personal Investment Management announcing the closure of their operation in Peterborough and its re-siting to Glasgow, laying off nearly 900 members of staff. [56]

Financing Edit

On 30 August 2007, Barclays was forced to borrow £1.6 billion (US$3.2 billion) from the Bank of England sterling standby facility. This is made available as a last-resort when banks are unable to settle their debts to other banks at the end of daily trading. [57] Despite rumours about liquidity at Barclays, the loan was necessary due to a technical problem with their computerised settlement network. A Barclays spokesman was quoted as saying "There are no liquidity issues in the U.K markets. Barclays itself is flush with liquidity." [58]

On 9 November 2007, Barclays shares dropped 9% and were even temporarily suspended for a short period of time, due to rumours of a £4.8 billion (US$10 billion) exposure to bad debts in the US. However, a Barclays spokesman denied the rumours. [59]

Barclays sought to raise capital privately, avoiding direct equity investment from the UK government, which was offered to boost its capital ratio. [60] Barclays believed that "maintaining its independence from government was in the best interests of its shareholders". [61]

In July 2008, Barclays attempted to raise £4.5 billion through a non-traditional rights issue to shore up its weakened Tier 1 capital ratio, which involved a rights offer to existing shareholders and the sale of a stake to Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation. Only 19% of shareholders took up their rights leaving investors China Development Bank and Qatar Investment Authority with increased holdings in the bank. [62]

Barclays launched a further round of capital raising, approved by special resolution on 24 November 2008, as part of its overall plan to achieve higher capital targets set by the UK's Financial Services Authority to ensure it would remain independent. [63] Barclays raised £7 billion from investors from Abu Dhabi and Qatar. [64] [65] Existing Barclays shareholders complained they were not offered full pre-emption rights in this round of capital raising, even threatening to revolt at the extraordinary meeting. Sheikh Mansour and Qatar Holding agreed to open up £500 million of their new holdings of reserve capital instruments for clawback. Existing investors now took this up. [66]

In 2008, Barclays bought the credit card brand Goldfish for US$70 million gaining 1.7 million customers, and US$3.9 billion in receivables. [67] Barclays also bought a controlling stake in the Russian retail bank Expobank for US$745 million. [68] Later in the year Barclays commenced its Pakistan operations with initial funding of US$100 million. [69]

Lehman Brothers acquisition Edit

On 16 September 2008, Barclays announced its agreement to purchase, subject to regulatory approval, the investment-banking and trading divisions of Lehman Brothers (including its New York skyscraper) which was a United States financial conglomerate that had filed for bankruptcy. [70]

On 20 September 2008, a revised version of the deal, a US$1.35 billion (£700 million) plan for Barclays to acquire the core business of Lehman Brothers (mainly Lehman's US$960 million Midtown Manhattan office skyscraper, with responsibility for 9,000 former employees), was approved. After a seven-hour hearing, New York bankruptcy court Judge James Peck ruled:

"I have to approve this transaction because it is the only available transaction. Lehman Brothers became a victim, in effect the only true icon to fall in a tsunami that has befallen the credit markets. This is the most momentous bankruptcy hearing I've ever sat through. It can never be deemed precedent for future cases. It's hard for me to imagine a similar emergency." [71]

Luc Despins, the creditors committee counsel, said: "The reason we're not objecting is really based on the lack of a viable alternative. We did not support the transaction because there had not been enough time to properly review it." In the amended agreement, Barclays would absorb US$47.4 billion in securities and assume US$45.5 billion in trading liabilities. Lehman's attorney Harvey R. Miller of Weil, Gotshal & Manges, said "the purchase price for the real estate components of the deal would be US$1.29 billion, including US$960 million for Lehman's New York headquarters and US$330 million for two New Jersey data centres. Lehman's original estimate valued its headquarters at US$1.02 billion but an appraisal from CB Richard Ellis this week valued it at US$900 million." Further, Barclays will not acquire Lehman's Eagle Energy unit, but will have entities known as Lehman Brothers Canada Inc, Lehman Brothers Sudamerica, Lehman Brothers Uruguay and its Private Investment Management business for high-net-worth individuals. Finally, Lehman will retain US$20 billion of securities assets in Lehman Brothers Inc that are not being transferred to Barclays. [72] Barclays had a potential liability of US$2.5 billion to be paid as severance, if it chooses not to retain some Lehman employees beyond the guaranteed 90 days. [73] [74]

In September 2014, Barclays was ordered to pay $15 million in settlement charges that alleged the bank had failed to maintain an adequate internal compliance system after its acquisition of Lehman Brothers during the 2008 financial crisis. [75]

2009 to present Edit

Reuters later reported that the British government would inject £40 billion (US$69 billion) into three banks including Barclays, which might seek over £7 billion. [76] Barclays later confirmed that it rejected the Government's offer and would instead raise £6.5 billion of new capital (£2 billion by cancellation of dividend and £4.5 billion from private investors). [64] [77]

Barclays' share price fell 54% in June 2009 after the International Petroleum Investment Company (IPIC), which had invested up to £4.75 billion in November 2008, sold 1.3 billion Barclays shares. [78] Qatar Holding sold a 3.5% stake worth £10 billion in October 2009, [79] and a further sale of warrants worth around £750 million in November 2012, but remains one of the bank's largest shareholders. [80] In July 2012, Barclays revealed that the FSA was investigating [80] whether the bank adequately disclosed fees paid to Qatar Investment Authority. In August 2012, the Serious Fraud Office announced an investigation into the Middle East capital raising. The Financial Services Authority announced an expansion of the investigation into the Barclays-Qatar deal in January 2013, focusing on the disclosure surrounding the ownership of the securities in the bank. [81]

In January 2009, the press reported that further capital may be required and that while the government might be willing to fund this, it may be unable to do so because the previous capital investment from the Qatari state was subject to a proviso that no third party might put in further money without the Qataris receiving compensation at the value the shares had commanded in October 2008. [82] In March 2009, it was reported that in 2008, Barclays received billions of dollars from its insurance arrangements with AIG, including US$8.5 billion from funds provided by the United States to bail out AIG. [83] [84]

On 12 June 2009, Barclays sold its Global Investors unit, which included its exchange-traded fund business, iShares, to BlackRock for US$13.5 billion. [85] Standard Life sold Standard Life Bank to Barclays in October 2009. The sale was completed on 1 January 2010. [86] On 11 November 2009, Barclays and First Data, a global technology provider of information commerce, had entered into an agreement according to which Barclays would migrate a range of card portfolios to First Data's issuing and consumer finance platform. [87] On 13 February 2010, Barclays announced it would pay more than £2 billion in bonuses. [88] In March 2011 it was reported that Barclays had overtaken Santander UK to claim top spot as the UK's most complained against bank, with the country's official banking regulator, the Financial Services Authority having recorded 276,315 new customer complaints against Barclays Bank during the second half of 2010. [89] Barclays nevertheless ranks only third in the UK among the mainstream clearing banks in terms of the number of its branches. Inline with costs cut, Barclays cut 1,400 jobs during the first half of 2011 and cut another 1,600 jobs for the rest of 2011. [90]

In March 2012, the trading names of Barclays Capital, Barclays Wealth and Barclays Corporate were each changed to simply "Barclays", as part of an effort to simplify the operations of the company. [91]

In June 2012 Barclaycard acquired Analog Analytics, a digital coupon and daily deal business similar to Groupon. [92] [93]

In October 2012, Barclays announced it had agreed to buy the ING Direct UK business of the ING Group. [94] The transfer of the business to Barclays was approved at the High Court on 20 February 2013 and ING Direct was renamed Barclays Direct and would be integrated into the existing Barclays business within two years. [95]

In February 2013, Barclays announced a net loss of £1.04 billion for 2012, its first annual loss in two decades, together with plans to cut 3,700 jobs, reduce annual costs by £1.7 billion, and scale back its retail banking activities in Europe and Asia. [96]

In May 2014, Barclays announced it would cut 19,000 jobs over three years with 12,000 jobs cut in 2014. Investment banking will cut 2,000 jobs in 2014 and up to 7,000 jobs totally in 2016 making the investment banking portion shrink from 50 per cent in 2014 to 30 per cent of Barclays assets in 2016. [97]

Barclays announced in June 2015 that it would sell its US wealth and investment management business to Stifel for an undisclosed fee. [98]

Barclays sold its Retail Banking unit in Spain to CaixaBank in 2014. At its peak, Barclays had 5,100 employees and 600 offices in Spain. In 2014 the bank had 2,800 employees and 270 offices. With the sale, Caixabank acquired around 550,000 new retail and private banking clients and 2,400 employees. [99] [100] [101]

In March 2016, it was announced that Barclays has plans to sell its Africa business amid falling profits. [102]

In April 2016, Barclays announced a deal that allowed its UK customers to use Apple Pay. [103]

The bank announced in May 2017 that it would sell £1.5 billion worth of shares of its Barclays Africa Group subsidiary as part of its strategy to refocus its business from Africa to the UK and US. [104] In September 2017, Barclays sold off the last part of its retail banking segment on continental Europe after selling its French retail, wealth and investment management operations to AnaCap. [105]

The name of Barclays Africa Group Limited was changed to ABSA Group Limited in May 2018 while Barclays' stake in ABSA Group then stood at 14.9%. [106]

To ward off the effects of Brexit, Barclays borrowed £6 billion from the Bank of England between April and June 2017, as part of a post-referendum stimulus package launched in August 2016. [107] The former boss of Barclays, Bob Diamond, opined in an interview with The Independent in September 2017 that the City of London would feel a stronger negative impact from Brexit than generally expected. [108] Diamond argued that both banking jobs and legal and support operations would eventually relocate to continental Europe. [108]

In early 2020 Barclays' American card services division announced a cobranded Mastercard with the airline Emirates, the airline's first US-based co-branded credit card. [109]

In December 2020, Barclays was fined £26 million because of the way it treated its customers who fell into debt or experienced financial problems. [110]

Barclays operates as two divisions, Barclays UK (BUK) and Barclays International (BI), supported by a service company, Barclays Execution Services (BX). [3]

  • Barclays UK consists of UK Personal Banking, UK Business Banking and Barclaycard Consumer UK businesses, carried on by a UK ring-fenced bank (Barclays Bank UK PLC) and certain other entities within the Group.
  • Barclays International consists of a Corporate and Investment Bank and Consumer, Cards and Payments businesses, which are carried on by a nonring- fenced bank (Barclays Bank PLC) and its subsidiaries, as well as by certain other entities within the Group.
  • Barclays Execution Services is the Group-wide service company providing technology, operations and functional services to businesses across the Group.

Principal divisions and subsidiaries Edit

Barclays' principal divisions and subsidiaries include:

    – global credit card business
  • Barclays Bank LLC (Russia)
  • Barclays Bank plc – UK corporate bank
  • Barclays Bank UK plc – UK retail bank
  • Barclays Bank Delaware (formerly Barclaycard US, originally Juniper Bank, acquired 2003)
  • Barclays Corporate
  • Barclays Croatia
  • Barclays Execution Services
  • Barclays France
  • Barclays India
  • Barclays Indonesia [111][112]
  • Barclays Private Clients International – subsidiary based in the Isle of Man with branches in the Channel Islands
  • Barclays Morocco
  • Barclays Mauritius : former vice chairman, Julian Ogilvie Thompson.
  • Barclays Pakistan
  • Barclays Partner Finance
  • Barclays Portugal (162 branches) [113]
  • Barclays Rise (fintech accelerator with locations in New York, London, Manchester, Vilnius(sold), Cape Town, Tel Aviv and Mumbai) [114]
  • Barclays Shared Services Chennai (India)
  • Barclays Shared Services Noida (India)
  • Barclays Technologies Centre China (closed)
  • Barclays Technologies Centre India
  • Barclays Technologies Centre Singapore (closed)
  • Barclays Technologies Centre Lithuania (closed) – provides stockbroking and offshore and private banking
  • Firstplus Financial Group plc

Branches and ATMs Edit

Barclays has over 4,750 branches in about 55 countries and of which about 1,600 are in the United Kingdom. [115] In the UK, Barclays also offers some personal banking services through branches of the Post Office. Most Barclays branches have 24/7 ATMs. Barclays customers and the customers of many other banks can use Barclays ATMs for free in the UK, although in some other countries fees are charged. Barclays is a member of the Global ATM Alliance, an alliance of international banks which allows each banks' customers to use their ATM or debit card at all other member banks with no ATM access fees when travelling internationally. [116]

Senior management Edit

The Group Chairman is Nigel Higgins (ex-CEO of Rothschild & Co), who succeeded John McFarlane on 2 May 2019. [117]

On 28 October 2015 Barclays announced that Jes Staley, managing partner at BlueMountain Capital, ex-CEO of J.P. Morgan & Co. and member of the board of directors of UBS, has been appointed as Group Chief Executive Officer of Barclays effective 1 December 2015. [118]

Group Executive Committee Edit

The current members of Barclays' Executive Committee are: [119]

    (Group Chief Executive Officer)
  • Tushar Morzaria (Group Finance Director)
  • Matt Hammerstein (Chief Executive Officer of Barclays UK)
  • Paul Compton (President of Barclays Bank PLC (BBPLC))
  • Mark Ashton-Rigby (Group Chief Operating Officer and Chief Executive Officer of Barclays Execution Services (BX))
  • Ashok Vaswani (Global Head of Consumer Banking and Payments)
  • Stephen Dainton (Global Head of Markets)
  • Joe McGrath (Global Head of Banking)
  • Alistair Currie (Global Head of Corporate Banking)
  • Bob Hoyt (Group General Counsel)
  • Tristram Roberts (Group Human Resources Director)
  • Laura Padovani (Group Chief Compliance Officer)
  • C. S. Venkatakrishnan (Group Chief Risk Officer)
  • Lindsay O'Reilly (Group Chief Internal Auditor)

Board of directors Edit

The current members of Barclays'Group board of directors are: [119]

  • Nigel Higgins (Group Chairman) (Group Chief Executive)
  • Tushar Morzaria (Group Finance Director) (Chairman of Barclays Bank UK PLC and Barclays Group Non-Executive Director) (Crawford Gillies starting 1 January 2021) [120]
  • Mary Francis CBE (Barclays Group Non-Executive Director)
  • Diane Schueneman (Barclays Group Non-Executive Director)
  • Mike Ashley (Barclays Group Non-Executive Director)
  • Tim Breedon CBE (Barclays Group Non-Executive Director)
  • Crawford Gilles (Senior Independent Director)
  • Mary Anne Citrino (Barclays Group Non-Executive Director)
  • Dawn Fitzpatrick (Barclays Group Non-Executive Director)
  • Matthew Lester (Barclays Group Non-Executive Director)

List of Former Group Chairmen Edit

The position of Group Chairman was formed in 1896, along with the formation of Barclay and Company Limited. [121]

    (1896–1916) (1917–1934) (1934–1936) (1937–1946) (1947–1951) (1951–1962) (1962–1973) (1973–1981) (1981–1987) (1987–1992) (1993–1999) (1999–2004) (2004–2007) (2007–2012) (2012–2015) (2015–2019)

List of Former Group Chief Executives Edit

The position of Group Chief Executive was formed in 1992 on the recommendation of the Cadbury Committee. [121]

Barclays sponsored the ITV's arts magazine show The South Bank Show, which ran from 2003 until December 2005.

In 2007, Barclays agreed a 20-year naming rights agreement for $400 million for the Barclays Center in Brooklyn, New York City, home of the Brooklyn Nets basketball team. Two years later, due to the slump in the economy the deal was renegotiated to $200 million. [122] [123]

Barclays was the sponsor of the Barclays Cycle Hire scheme in London from 2010 to 2015, as part of a £25 million deal with Transport for London. [125] [126]

Barclays is a longtime title sponsor of the Premier League, in a sponsorship that started with the 2003–04 season. [127]

Compensation to Jewish Holocaust survivors Edit

In 1998, Barclays Bank agreed to pay $3.6m to Jews whose assets were seized from French branches of the British-based bank during World War II. [128] Barclays, along with seven French banks, was named in a lawsuit filed in New York on behalf of Jews who were unable to reclaim money they deposited during the Nazi era. [128]

Financial support for the government in Zimbabwe Edit

Barclays helped to fund President Robert Mugabe's government in Zimbabwe. [129] The most controversial of a set of loans provided by Barclays is the £30 million it gave to help sustain land reforms that saw Mugabe seize white-owned farmland and drive more than 100,000 black workers from their homes. Opponents have called the bank's involvement a 'disgrace' and an 'insult' to the millions who have suffered human rights abuses. [130] Barclays spokesmen say the bank has had customers in Zimbabwe for decades and abandoning them now would make matters worse, "We are committed to continuing to provide a service to those customers in what is clearly a difficult operating environment". [131]

Barclays also provides two of Mugabe's associates with bank accounts, ignoring European Union sanctions on Zimbabwe. [132] The men are Elliot Manyika and minister of public service Nicholas Goche. Barclays has defended its position by insisting that the EU rules do not apply to its 67%-owned Zimbabwean subsidiary because it was incorporated outside the EU. [133]

Accusations of money laundering Edit

In March 2009, Barclays was accused of violating international anti-money laundering laws. According to the NGO Global Witness, the Paris branch of Barclays held the account of Equatorial Guinean President Teodoro Obiang's son, Teodorin Obiang, even after evidence that Obiang had siphoned oil revenues from government funds emerged in 2004. According to Global Witness, Obiang purchased a Ferrari and maintains a mansion in Malibu with the funds from this account. [134]

A 2010 report by the Wall Street Journal described how Credit Suisse, Barclays, Lloyds Banking Group, and other banks were involved in helping the Alavi Foundation, Bank Melli, the Iranian government, and/or others circumvent US laws banning financial transactions with certain states. They did this by 'stripping' information out of wire transfers, thereby concealing the source of funds. Barclays settled with the government for US$298 million. [135]

Tax avoidance Edit

In March 2009, Barclays obtained an injunction against The Guardian to remove from its website confidential leaked documents describing how SCM, Barclays' structured capital markets division, planned to use more than £11 billion of loans to create hundreds of millions of pounds of tax benefits, via "an elaborate circuit of Cayman Islands companies, US partnerships and Luxembourg subsidiaries". [136] In an editorial on the issue, The Guardian pointed out that, due to the mismatch of resources, tax-collectors (HMRC) now have to rely on websites such as WikiLeaks to obtain such documents, [137] and indeed the documents in question have now appeared on WikiLeaks. [138] [139] Separately, another Barclays whistleblower revealed several days later that the SCM transactions had produced between £900 million and £1 billion in tax avoidance in one year, adding that "The deals start with tax and then commercial purpose is added to them." [140]

In February 2012 Barclays was forced to pay £500 million in tax which it had tried to avoid. Barclays was accused by HMRC of designing two schemes that were intended to avoid substantial amounts of tax. Tax rules forced the bank to tell the UK authorities about its plans. [141] David Gauke, Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury, said that "We do not take today's action lightly, but the potential tax loss from this scheme and the history of previous abuse in this area mean that this is a circumstance where the decision to change the law with full retrospective effect is justified." [141]

Rate-fixing scandal Edit

In June 2012, as a result of an international investigation, Barclays Bank was fined a total of £290 million (US$450 million) for manipulating the daily settings of London Interbank Offered Rate (Libor) and the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (Euribor). The United States Department of Justice and Barclays officially agreed that "the manipulation of the submissions affected the fixed rates on some occasions". [142] The bank was found to have made 'inappropriate submissions' of rates which formed part of the Libor and Euribor setting processes, sometimes to make a profit, and other times to make the bank look more secure during the financial crisis. [143] This happened between 2005 and 2009, as often as daily. [144]

The BBC said revelations concerning the fraud were "greeted with almost universal astonishment in the banking industry." [145] The UK's Financial Services Authority (FSA), which levied a fine of £59.5 million ($92.7 million), gave Barclays the biggest fine it had ever imposed in its history. [144] The FSA's director of enforcement described Barclays' behaviour as "completely unacceptable", adding "Libor is an incredibly important benchmark reference rate, and it is relied on for many, many hundreds of thousands of contracts all over the world." [143] The bank's chief executive Bob Diamond decided to give up his bonus as a result of the fine. [146] Liberal Democrat politician Lord Oakeshott criticised Diamond, saying: "If he had any shame he would go. If the Barclays board has any backbone, they'll sack him." [143] The US Department of Justice has also been involved, with "other financial institutions and individuals" under investigation. [143] On 2 July 2012, Marcus Agius resigned from the chairman position following the interest rate rigging scandal. [147] On 3 July 2012, Bob Diamond resigned with immediate effect, leaving Marcus Agius to fill his post until a replacement is found. [148] Within the space of a few hours, this was followed by the resignation of the Bank's chief operating officer, Jerry del Missier. [149] Barclays subsequently announced that Antony Jenkins, its existing chief executive of Global Retail & Business Banking would become group chief executive on 30 August 2012. [150] On 17 February 2014 the Serious Fraud Office charged three former bank employees with manipulating Libor rates between June 2005 and August 2007. [151] Four employees were jailed in July 2016 for up to six-and-a-half years, with two others cleared after a retrial. [152]

Qatari capital raising regulatory investigations Edit

Barclays' June and November 2008 capital raisings are the subject of investigations. [153] The UK's Serious Fraud Office commenced its investigation in August 2012. In October 2012, the United States Department of Justice and the US Securities and Exchange Commission informed Barclays they had commenced an investigation into whether the group's relationships with third parties who assist Barclays to win or retain business are compliant with the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. [154] The Financial Services Authority announced an expansion of the investigation into the Barclays-Qatar deal in January 2013, focusing on the disclosure surrounding the ownership of the securities in the bank. [155]

Barclays had sought to raise capital privately, avoiding direct equity investment from the Government of the United Kingdom and, therefore, a bailout. The result was Abu Dhabi's £3.5 billion investment in the bank, a deal in which Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan made a profit of £3.5 billion. [156] Much of the focus to date has been on the injections by Qatar in June and November 2008, notably the so far unproven allegation that Barclays lent Qatar the money to invest in the bank. Other questions include what happened to the £110 million in fees paid by Barclays ostensibly to Sheikh Mansour, and the £66 million provided by Barclays to the Qataris for unexplained "advisory fees". [157]

In June 2017, following a five-year investigation by the UK's Serious Fraud Office covering Barclays' activities during the financial crisis of 2007–2008, former CEO John Varley and three former colleagues, Roger Jenkins, Thomas Kalaris and Richard Boath, were charged with conspiracy to commit fraud and the provision of unlawful financial assistance in connection with capital raising. [158] [159]

In February 2018, the Serious Fraud Office charged Barclays with "unlawful financial assistance" related to billions of pounds raised from the Qatar deal. [160]

On 8 June 2020, Barclays was also accused of deceit by a British businesswoman Amanda Staveley’s firm PCP Capital. The company sued the bank in a £1.5 billion lawsuit, claiming that it had “deliberately misled” the market over the terms of its capital raising deal with Qatar. PCP alleged that Qatar Holdings was offered a “completely different” deal than that offered to Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan of Abu Dhabi, who according to Amanda Staveley was introduced to Barclays by PCP. [161] However, during the hearing in the High Court of London, the Barclays lawyer, Jeffery Onions accused Staveley of “significantly exaggerating” her business relationship with the Abu Dhabi sheikh and of creating a “hustle” by getting involved in a crucial capital raising. [162] Staveley and PCP Capital subsequently reduced the amount of their claim but lost the case in the High Court. [163]

US electricity market manipulation Edit

In July 2013 US energy regulator the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered Barclays to pay £299 million fine penalty for attempting to manipulate the electricity market in the US. The fine by FERC relates to allegations in December 2008. [164]

Gold price manipulation Edit

In May 2014 the Financial Conduct Authority fined the bank £26 million over systems and controls failures, and conflict of interest in relation to the bank and its customers in connection to the gold fixing during the period 2004–2013, and for manipulation of the gold price on 28 June 2012. [165]

US lawsuit alleging dark pool fraud Edit

In June 2014 the US state of New York filed a lawsuit against the bank alleging it defrauded and deceived investors with inaccurate marketing material about its unregulated trading system known as a dark pool. Specifically, the firm was accused of hiding the fact that Tradebot participated in the dark pool when they were in fact one of the largest players. The state, in its complaint, said it was being assisted by former Barclays executives and it was seeking unspecified damages. The bank's shares dropped 5% on news of the lawsuit, prompting an announcement to the London Stock Exchange by the bank saying it was taking the allegations seriously, and was co-operating with the New York attorney general. [166]

A month later the bank filed a motion for the suit to be dismissed, saying there had been no fraud, no victims and no harm to anyone. The New York Attorney General's office issued a statement saying the attorney general was confident the motion would fail. [167] On 31 January 2016, Barclays settled with both the New York Attorney General's office and the SEC, agreeing to pay $70 million split evenly between the SEC and New York state, admitting it violated securities laws and agreeing to install an independent monitor for the dark pool. [168]

Climate change Edit

In 2017 Barclays faced protests by environmentalists because of its ownership of Third Energy which planned to extract natural gas using hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at Kirby Misperton in Yorkshire. Barclays later sold Third Energy in 2020 to Alpha Energy. [169] [170]

In 2020 the campaign group ShareAction filed a resolution at Barclays AGM [171] because of its role as Europe’s largest funder of fossil fuel companies. Barclays invested $85 billion in fossil fuel extraction and $24 billion in expansion. [172]

Exchange-rate rigging (last-look system) Edit

Barclays agreed to pay $150 million to resolve an investigation by New York's banking regulator into a trading practice that allowed the bank to exploit a milliseconds-long lag between an order and its execution that sometimes hurt its clients, the latest fallout from the bank's foreign-exchange business. [173]

In certain instances, Barclays used this last-look system to automatically reject client orders that would be unprofitable for the bank because of subsequent price swings during milliseconds-long latency ("hold") periods. Furthermore, when clients questioned Barclays about these rejected trades, Barclays failed to disclose the reason that the trades were being rejected, instead citing technical issues or providing vague responses. [174]

Unsuitable mutual fund transactions Edit

According to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Barclays' inadequate supervisory procedures failed to stop many customers from swapping one mutual fund for another when the benefits of switching might be undermined by the transaction costs, resulting in $8.63 million of losses for their customers between January 2010 and June 2015. Additionally, from March to August 2014, Barclays processed 1,723 fund transactions that were inconsistent with its customers' goals, risk tolerance or other investments which caused an additional $818,000 of customer harm. As a result, Barclays was required to pay $10 million in restitution, including interest, to affected customers and was fined $3.75 million, but did not admit or deny wrongdoing. [175]

Staff monitoring Edit

In a pilot programme at its London headquarters, the company used tracking software to assess how long employees spent at their desks and warn them if they took excessive breaks. Staff who spent too much time away could find this mentioned on their daily report cards. Following criticisms by staff, the bank said it had taken steps to ensure that individual data would no longer be visible to managers, although the company still holds this data.” [176]

The bank faced similar privacy concerns in 2017 when it used OccupEye sensors to track staff through black boxes in their desks. [177]

Lady Bird Johnson

In 1931, Johnson moved to Washington, D.C., to serve as congressional secretary for newly elected U.S. Representative Richard Kleberg of Texas. Energetic and capable, Johnson began to meet influential people and learn about the national political process.

On November 17, 1934, he married Claudia Alta “Lady Bird” Taylor, a fellow Texan with whom he later had two daughters, Lynda and Luci. Lady Bird Johnson𠅊 soft-spoken but well-educated woman from an affluent family�me a critical part of Johnson’s political success.

In 1935, Johnson returned home to become the Texas director of the National Youth Administration, a New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (a political hero of Johnson’s) that helped young people find jobs or volunteer work during the Great Depression.

Films directed by Louis Lumière

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The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory The Sprinkler Sprinkled Baby's Meal Demolition of a Wall Serpentine Dance Snowball Fight The Merry Skeleton Boat Leaving the Port The Photographical Congress Arrives in Lyon The Sea Déjeuner du Chat Partie d'écarté Transformation by Hats Fishing for Goldfish The Mechanical Butcher Childish Quarrel Cordeliers' Square in Lyon The Little Girl and Her Cat The Blacksmiths Jumping the Blanket Horse Trick Riders Arrivée d'un train à Perrache Laveuses sur la rivière Photograph Panorama de l'arrivée en gare de Perrache pris… Lyon, place Bellecour Bicyclist Baby's First Steps Carmaux: Drawing Out the Coke Partie de boules Boules Game La Sortie de l'usine Lumière Le maréchal-ferrant Pompiers : attaque du feu Ostriches Défilé de voitures de bébés à la pouponnière… Course en sacs Quai de l'Archevêché Champs-Élysées Dragoons Crossing the Sâone Poultry-Yard Partie de tric-trac Lancement d'un navire Ateliers de La Ciotat Aquarium Bains en mer Récréation à la Martinière Le goûter des bébés London Street Dancers Panorama pendant l'ascension de la Tour Eiffel Place du Pont Women Fighting Enfants jouant aux billes Joueurs de cartes arrosés Sortie d'usine, [III] Loading a Boiler Dresden, August-Brücke Radeau avec baigneurs Writing Backwards Bassin des Tuileries Départ en voiture Panorama de l’arrivée à Aix-les-Bains pris du train… Voltige Retour d’une promenade en mer Douche après le bain The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ Entrée d'une noce à l'église Paris, Champs-Elysées (voitures) Départ de cyclistes La Canebière Débarquement d'une mouche Nice, panorama du casino pris d'un bateau Pêche aux sardines Paris, le Pont-Neuf Chamonix : Le mauvais pas Bal d'enfants Débarquement Chamonix : Arrivée en voitures des breaks d'excursion Concours d’automobiles fleuries (départ) Petit frère et petite sœur Evian : procession de la Fête-Dieu I Arrivée en voiture Ploughing A Trip Through Paris, France in The 1890s Danse espagnole de la Feria Sevillanos Cuirassiers à cheval Pillow Fight, No. 2 Mauvaises herbes Fish Market The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat… Carnaval, [VIII] /> /> The Card Game Panorama des rives de la Seine à Paris,… Équilibre et moulinet Saut à la couverte Concert Le retour, Place de l'Etoile Carpenters Festival of Paris 1899: Flowering Car Contest The Return to Champs-Élysées The Children's Seaside Frolic Barque en mer Le prince de Galles Carnaval, [I] The chariot and battle of confetti Repas en famille Repas des chats Paris, mi-carême : char de la reine des… Panorama des rives de la Seine, IV La toilette du petit chien Embarquement pour la promenade /> /> Discussion Sortie d’usine, [II] Pêcheurs raccommodant les filets Arroseur et arrosé, II /> /> Salone Margherita Abattage d'un arbre Bluebeard /> /> Scènes d'enfants Rochers de la vierge Enfant et chien La Bourse Sortie d'usine, [IV] Leçon de bicyclette Carnaval, [II] Ronde enfantine Carnaval, [III] Carnaval, [IV] Carnaval, [V] Carnaval, [VI] Carnaval, [VII] Démolition d'un mur I Panorama des rives de la Seine, I Melbourne Une partie de lawn-tennis, I Panorama des rives de la Seine, II Le chat qui joue Charge of the Cuirassiers Evian : procession de la Fête-Dieu III Evian : procession de la Fête-Dieu II Evian : procession de la Fête-Dieu IV Cours Belsunce Elephants Marché

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The origins of NPS as a proprietary instrument date to 2001, at which point Reichwald and Satamatrix built on their earlier, ongoing market research efforts to distill and promote a single survey item that was easy to administer to large numbers of respondents, as well as easy for stakeholders to use and interpret. Early efforts to promote the use of the NPS to corporate clients notably include a 2002 Harvard Business Review article by Reichheld entitled The One Number You Need To Grow [1] .

The primary objective of the Net Promoter Score methodology is to infer customer loyalty (as evidenced by repurchase and referral) to a product, service, brand, or company on the basis of respondents' responses to a single survey item. [8] : 49–51 [8] : 61–65 [8] : 77–81 [10] For some industries, in particular annuity-based business-to-business software and services, it has been shown that Detractors tend to remain with a company, while Passives are more likely to leave. [11] The use of the NPS score in addition to revenue retention rates and customer retention rates may offer valuable customer insights and may offer a better predictibility of customer loyalty rates. [12]

As it represents responses to a single survey item, the validity and reliability of any corporation's NPS score ultimately depend on collecting a large number of ratings from individual human users. However, market research surveys are typically distributed by email, and response rates to such surveys have been declining steadily in recent years. [13] [14] In the face of criticism of the Net Promoter Score, the proponents of the Net Promoter approach claim that the "recommend" question is of similar predictive power to other metrics, but that it presents a number of practical benefits to other more complex metrics. [2] Proponents also argue that analyses based on third-party data are inferior to those conducted by companies on their own customer sets, and that the practical benefits of the approach (including a short survey, a simple concept to communicate, and corporations' ability to follow up with customers) outweigh possible statistical inferiority to other metrics. [15]


1936 [2]
Month Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) % Alf Landon (R) %
July 49% 45%
August 49% 45%
49% 45%
49% 44%
September 49% 45%
50% 44%
October 51% 44%
51% 44%
56% 44%
Actual result 60.80% 36.54%
Difference between actual result and final poll +4.80% -7.46%

After predicting the winners in the previous five elections, The Literary Digest famously predicted that Alf Landon would win overwhelmingly based on mail-in cards sent in from their readers.

On the other hand, George Gallup predicted a win by Roosevelt based on statistical random sampling, within 1.1% of the Literary Digest's results.

The accuracy of Gallup's forecasts was a very visible demonstration of the value of modern statistical methods: according to data collected in the Gallup poll, The Literary Digest poll failed primarily due to non-response bias (Roosevelt won 69% of Literary Digest readers that did not return the poll), rather than selection bias, as is commonly believed (Roosevelt won 57% of Literary Digest readers that received the poll). [3]

Incumbent President Roosevelt won in the largest landslide since the unopposed 1820 election, winning every state except Maine and Vermont, as his New Deal programs were very popular among the American people (apart from the respondents to the Literary Digest poll).

Republican nominee Alf Landon had claimed that the New Deal was too costly and ineffective and that Roosevelt was slowly making the United States a dictatorship, but these attacks did not gain much traction. [4]

1940 [2]
Month Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) % Wendell Willkie (R)%
July 48% 42%
44% 43%
August 45% 43%
46% 44%
September 49% 40%
October 50% 40%
51% 42%
52% 48%
Actual result 54.74% 44.78%
Difference between actual result and final poll +2.74% -3.22%

Throughout this campaign, Roosevelt promised that he would not bring the United States into any new wars if he was given another term and also promised to continue the New Deal.

While Willkie attacked Roosevelt for seeking a third term and accused him of trying to turn the United States into a dictatorship by refusing to leave office, his attacks gained little traction.

Roosevelt consistently led in all polls and was re-elected by a large margin. [5]

1944 [2]
Month Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) % Thomas E. Dewey (R) %
March 55% 41%
53% 42%
April 48% 46%
May 48% 47%
50% 45%
June 51% 45%
51% 44%
July 46% 45%
49% 41%
August 47% 42%
47% 45%
September 47% 42%
50% 45%
48% 41%
47% 45%
October 48% 47%
50% 47%
November 51% 48%
Actual result 53.39% 45.89%
Difference between actual result and final poll +2.39% -2.11%

Roosevelt actively campaigned in this election, against his doctors' advice, in order to counter Republican claims that he was close to death.

Roosevelt maintained a consistent, albeit sometimes narrow lead in the polls, and won a solid victory in this election due to American success in World War II and Roosevelt's continued popularity. [6]

1948 [2]
Month Harry S. Truman (D) % Thomas E. Dewey (R) % Henry A. Wallace (Progressive) % Strom Thurmond (Dixiecrat) %
December 1947/January 1948 46% 41% 7%
February/March 39% 47% 7%
June/July 38% 49% 6%
37% 48% 5%
August/September 37% 48% 4% 2%
36% 49% 5% 3%
39% 47% 3% 2%
39% 47% 3% 2%
40% 46% 4% 2%
October [7] 45% 50% 4% 2%
Actual result 49.55% 45.07% 2.37% 2.41%
Difference between actual result and final poll +4.55% -4.93% -1.63% +0.41%

While incumbent President Truman's popularity was low at the end of 1946, he was able to regain his popularity by attacking the "Do-Nothing" Republican Congress of 1947–1948 and tying Dewey to it, as well as energizing certain segments of the Democratic base through various actions such as ending segregation in the military and recognizing Israel. [8]

Gallup and other polling organizations had ceased polling in mid-October, believing Dewey would win the election in any event, and thus failed to predict Truman's comeback or his subsequent victory. [1]

1952 [2]
Month Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) % Adlai Stevenson II (D) %
June 59% 31%
July 50% 43%
September 55% 40%
55% 41%
October 53% 41%
51% 38%
48% 39%
48% 39%
51% 49%
Actual result 55.18% 44.33%
Difference between actual result and final poll +4.18% -4.67%

Dissatisfaction with the Korean War, corruption and the threat of Communism (K1c2) allowed popular World War II hero Eisenhower to win the election in a landslide after consistently leading in the polls, most of them by large margins. [9]

1956 [2]
Month Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) % Adlai Stevenson II (D) %
December 1955/January 1956 61% 35%
February/March 63% 33%
April/May 61% 37%
62% 33%
62% 35%
June/July 62% 35%
61% 37%
August/September 52% 41%
52% 41%
52% 40%
October/November 51% 41%
59% 40%
Actual result 57.37% 41.97%
Difference between actual result and final poll -1.63% +1.97%

After consistently leading in the polls by huge margins, popular incumbent President Eisenhower was easily re-elected due to the economic prosperity at home and ending the Korean War abroad. [10] [11]

1960 [2]
Month John F. Kennedy (D) % Richard Nixon (R) %
December 1959/January 1960 43% 48%
February/March 48% 48%
50% 45%
April/May 51% 44%
48% 47%
47% 49%
June/July 50% 46%
August/September 44% 50%
47% 47%
48% 47%
46% 47%
October/November 49% 46%
49% 45%
51% 49%
Actual result 49.72% 49.55%
Difference between actual result and final poll -1.28% +0.55%

The polls throughout this election always indicated a very close race. Incumbent Vice President Nixon initially led in the polls, but then suffered some problems (a poor image in the first television debate and a knee injury which prevented him from campaigning) which caused Kennedy to take the lead in the polls for most of the campaign. In the end, Kennedy won an extremely close victory over Nixon: [12] according to the Congressional Review, Nixon won the popular vote by 60,000 votes or 0.09%.

1964 [2]
Month Lyndon B. Johnson (D) % Barry Goldwater (R) %
June 77% 18%
76% 20%
July 62% 26%
59% 31%
August 65% 29%
September 65% 29%
62% 32%
October 64% 29%
64% 36%
Actual result 61.05% 38.47%
Difference between actual result and final poll -2.95% +2.47%

Incumbent President Johnson always maintained a huge lead in the polls and won in a landslide due to massive popular sympathy following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, a good economy, lack of severe foreign problems, and an effective campaign to portray Goldwater as a dangerous, out-of-touch extremist.

1968 [2]
Month Richard Nixon (R) % Hubert Humphrey (D) % George Wallace (American Independent) %
April 43% 34% 9%
May 39% 36% 14%
36% 42% 14%
June 37% 42% 14%
July 35% 40% 16%
40% 38% 16%
August 45% 29% 18%
September 43% 31% 19%
43% 28% 21%
44% 29% 20%
October 44% 36% 15%
November 43% 42% 15%
Actual result 43.42% 42.72% 13.53%
Difference between actual result and final poll +0.42% +0.72% -1.47%

This campaign was always close according to the polls, but after the tumultuous 1968 Democratic Convention and the riots near it Nixon was able to establish a lead and consistently maintain it throughout the campaign. American Independent candidate George Wallace ran in opposition to civil rights and in support of segregation and thus got a lot of support in the South. Humphrey began catching up to Nixon in the polls late in the campaign, but he ran out of time and Nixon won a narrow victory in the election itself.

1972 [2]
Month Richard Nixon (R) % George McGovern (D) %
May 53% 34%
June 53% 37%
July 56% 37%
August 57% 31%
64% 30%
September 61% 33%
October 60% 34%
59% 36%
November 62% 38%
Actual result 60.67% 37.52%
Difference between actual result and final poll -1.33% -0.48%

Incumbent President Nixon won re-election in a landslide, winning every state except Massachusetts, after maintaining a huge poll lead due to the economic recovery following the 1969–1970 recession and a successful portrayal of McGovern as a foreign policy lightweight and social radical ("amnesty, abortion, and acid"). McGovern's campaign was also hurt by him having to change vice-presidential candidates in the middle of the campaign, causing many people to question his judgement. [13]

1976 [2]
Month Jimmy Carter (D) % Gerald Ford (R) %
March 47% 42%
48% 46%
48% 46%
April 48% 43%
May 52% 42%
53% 40%
June 55% 37%
53% 36%
July 62% 29%
August 54% 32%
51% 36%
September 51% 40%
October 47% 45%
47% 41%
48% 49%
Actual result 50.08% 48.02%
Difference between actual result and final poll +2.08% -0.98%

Carter was able to open up a huge lead over incumbent President Ford due to dissatisfaction with Watergate, Ford's pardon of Nixon and the sluggish economy. Ford managed to close the gap near the end of the campaign by having some good debate performances among other things. However, Ford was hurt by his comment saying that there was no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and he ran out of time to close the polling gap with Carter, thus allowing Carter to pull off a narrow victory on election day.

1980 [2]
Month Ronald Reagan (R) % Jimmy Carter (D) % John B. Anderson (I) %
December 1979/January 1980 33% 62%
February/March 31% 60%
33% 58%
34% 40% 21%
April/May 34% 41% 18%
32% 38% 21%
32% 40% 21%
June/July 32% 39% 21%
33% 35% 24%
37% 32% 22%
37% 34% 21%
August/September 45% 29% 14%
38% 39% 13%
39% 39% 14%
October/November 40% 44% 9%
39% 45% 9%
47% 44% 8%
Actual result 50.75% 41.01% 6.61%
Difference between actual result and final poll +3.75% -2.99% -1.39%

Incumbent President Carter initially had a huge lead in the polls due to the rally-around-the flag effect of the Iranian hostage crisis and the perceived extremism of Reagan. The continuing hostage crisis and the poor economy hurt Carter and the prospect John B. Anderson running as an independent appealed to around 20% of Americans who saw Carter as a lesser evil to Reagan. As a result, Anderson took a third of Carter's support in the spring, but did not seem to hurt Reagan despite Anderson being a Republican. Carter would never recover this loss of support while Reagan would end up peeling around two-thirds of initial Anderson voters. This race remained close until near the end, when Reagan asked Americans if they were better off than they were four years ago. Afterwards, Reagan managed to win a huge landslide victory in the general election.

1984 [2]
Month Ronald Reagan (R) % Walter Mondale (D) %
December 1983/January 1984 48% 47%
53% 43%
February/March 52% 42%
50% 45%
52% 44%
April/May 54% 41%
52% 44%
50% 46%
53% 43%
June/July 53% 44%
55% 38%
51% 43%
53% 39%
53% 41%
August/September 52% 41%
56% 37%
58% 37%
55% 39%
October/November 58% 38%
56% 39%
59% 41%
Actual result 58.77% 40.56%
Difference between actual result and final poll -0.23% -0.44%

Incumbent President Reagan led in all pre-election polls and defeated Mondale in a landslide, winning every state except Mondale's home state of Minnesota, due to the improving economy and falling unemployment rate.

1988 [2]
Month George H. W. Bush (R) % Michael Dukakis (D) %
March 52% 40%
April 45% 43%
May 38% 54%
June 38% 52%
41% 46%
July 41% 47%
37% 54%
August 42% 49%
September 49% 41%
47% 42%
October 50% 40%
November 56% 44%
Actual result 53.37% 45.65%
Difference between actual result and final poll -2.63% +1.65%

While Dukakis was able to open a huge lead in the initial polls, Vice President Bush's campaign successfully portrayed Dukakis as soft on crime and also used the good economy, Reagan's popularity and Bush's no new taxes pledge to close the gap and eventually open up a huge lead over Dukakis. Bush ended up easily winning the general election.

1992 [2]
Month Bill Clinton (D) % George H. W. Bush (R) % Ross Perot (I) %
March 25% 44% 24%
April 26% 41% 25%
May 29% 35% 30%
25% 35% 35%
June 26% 30% 38%
25% 31% 39%
24% 24% 37%
24% 32% 34%
27% 33% 32%
July 40% 48%
56% 34%
56% 36%
57% 32%
August 56% 37%
50% 39%
52% 42%
September 54% 39%
51% 42%
50% 40%
54% 38%
51% 35% 8%
October 47% 35% 10%
50% 34% 9%
51% 33% 10%
46% 34% 13%
47% 34% 14%
47% 29% 15%
44% 32% 17%
41% 30% 20%
42% 31% 19%
40% 38% 16%
41% 40% 14%
43% 36% 15%
November 49% 37% 14%
Actual result 43.01% 37.45% 18.91%
Difference between actual result and final poll -5.99% +0.45% +4.91%

In the spring and early summer, the polls fluctuated with incumbent President Bush and independent challenger Ross Perot trading the lead in the polls. However, Perot withdrew from the race in July and Clinton was able to open up a consistent lead in the polls from July onward by blaming Bush for the poor economy and promising that he would fix it ("It's the economy, stupid").

While Perot returned to the race in September, but he was never able to recapture all his previous support, and Clinton ended up winning the general election by a comfortable margin.

1996 [2]
Month Bill Clinton (D) % Bob Dole (R) % Ross Perot (Reform) %
January 43% 39% 16%
March 47% 34% 17%
April 49% 35% 15%
May 47% 32% 19%
49% 35% 15%
June 49% 33% 17%
July 50% 33% 12%
50% 35% 10%
August 52% 30% 12%
48% 39% 7%
50% 38% 7%
51% 38% 7%
55% 34% 6%
September 53% 36% 5%
54% 36% 4%
55% 34% 5%
55% 34% 5%
55% 32% 6%
51% 34% 8%
50% 36% 6%
52% 36% 4%
53% 34% 6%
51% 38% 5%
49% 39% 6%
51% 37% 6%
57% 32% 5%
October 53% 36% 6%
51% 39% 5%
55% 35% 5%
55% 34% 6%
51% 38% 5%
56% 35% 4%
48% 39% 5%
51% 36% 8%
54% 35% 6%
52% 33% 8%
53% 34% 6%
54% 34% 7%
49% 37% 7%
51% 35% 10%
50% 37% 7%
November 52% 41% 7%
Actual result 49.23% 40.72% 8.40%
Difference between actual result and final poll -2.77% -0.28% +1.40%

Incumbent President Clinton held a comfortable lead in the polls throughout this entire election cycle due to the good economy, stable international situation, and successfully tying Dole to Newt Gingrich, the unpopular Speaker of the house, easily winning the general election.

2000 [2]
Month George W. Bush (R) % Al Gore (D) % Ralph Nader (Green) %
April 47% 41% 4%
June 46% 41% 6%
50% 38% 6%
July 45% 43% 5%
50% 39% 4%
August 54% 37% 4%
55% 39% 2%
46% 47% 3%
46% 45% 3%
September 44% 47% 3%
46% 45% 2%
42% 49% 3%
41% 49% 4%
42% 49% 2%
41% 49% 3%
44% 48% 2%
41% 51% 3%
42% 50% 2%
47% 44% 2%
46% 44% 2%
46% 44% 3%
45% 45% 4%
October 41% 49% 2%
40% 51% 2%
48% 41% 4%
50% 42% 4%
45% 45% 2%
45% 45% 3%
48% 43% 2%
47% 44% 3%
51% 40% 4%
44% 46% 4%
49% 42% 3%
52% 39% 4%
49% 42% 3%
47% 44% 3%
47% 43% 4%
November 47% 43% 4%
48% 46% 4%
Actual result 47.91% 48.42% 2.74%
Difference between actual result and final poll -0.09% +2.42% -1.26%

This election was close throughout the whole campaign, since Gore was able to use the good economy to his advantage while also being hurt by perceptions of him as robotic and pompous. The Lewinsky scandal also might have hurt Gore, and helped Bush in the polls among voters who were concerned about moral values.

Despite multiple court challenges by the Gore campaign after a recount was required in Florida, the Supreme Court upheld the decision, allowing Bush to win the Electoral College despite losing the national popular vote by 0.51%. [14]

2004 [2]
Month George W. Bush (R) % John Kerry (D) %
March 44% 50%
49% 45%
April 47% 43%
50% 44%
May 47% 47%
47% 45%
46% 47%
June 43% 49%
48% 47%
July 45% 50%
46% 47%
51% 45%
August 48% 46%
48% 46%
September 52% 45%
52% 44%
October 49% 49%
48% 49%
52% 44%
51% 46%
49% 49%
Actual result 50.73% 48.27%
Difference between actual result and final poll +1.73% -0.73%

This election was closely contested throughout the entire campaign, as dissatisfaction with the Iraq War and a sluggish economy helped Kerry. However, Bush accused Kerry of flip-flopping [15] and the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth accused Kerry of being unpatriotic.

A decisive moment came a week before the election when Al-Qaeda released a video warning Americans not to re-elect Bush: afterwards, Bush's poll ratings in decisive swing states gave him a comfortable lead there, and Bush was re-elected. [2]

2008 [2]
Month Barack Obama (D) % John McCain (R) %
March 46% 44%
43% 47%
April 46% 43%
45% 45%
May 42% 48%
47% 43%
44% 47%
June 48% 41%
45% 45%
July 48% 42%
45% 44%
49% 40%
44% 44%
August 48% 42%
45% 45%
50% 42%
September 44% 49%
50% 44%
46% 46%
October 52% 41%
49% 43%
52% 42%
53% 40%
53% 42%
Actual result 52.91% 45.64%
Difference between actual result and final poll -0.09% +3.64%

The campaign was close throughout the spring and summer, with Obama and McCain both trading leads. The economy went into a recession in December 2007, [16] but initially Obama was hurt in the polls due to weak support from Hillary Clinton supporters. [17] The Republicans also attacked Obama for being inexperienced [18] and McCain got a temporary bump in the polls after he picked Sarah Palin to be his vice presidential nominee. However, the financial crisis which started in mid-September allowed Obama to open up a consistent and comfortable lead in the polls in the beginning of October, and he won the general election by a comfortable margin. [2]

2012 [ citation needed ]
Month Barack Obama (D) % Mitt Romney (R) %
April 45% 47%
49% 43%
46% 46%
May 44% 50%
47% 46%
45% 46%
June 47% 45%
48% 43%
July 48% 44%
47% 45%
46% 46%
46% 45%
August 47% 45%
45% 47%
47% 46%
September 49% 45%
50% 43%
50% 44%
October 50% 45%
46% 49%
48% 48%
48% 47%
November 49% 46%
Actual result 51.07% 47.20%
Difference between actual result and final poll +2.07% +1.20%

Early on, President Obama and his campaign aired negative attack ads hammering Republican challenger Mitt Romney as an out-of-touch, plutocratic, wealthy job destroyer from his days as a corporate CEO at Bain Capital. Romney bounced back in the polls against the incumbent after strong performances in the primaries and because the economy was still recovering from the 2007–2009 recession.

In April, after Obama publicly expressed his support of same-sex marriage and a story of Romney bullying a kid in high school perceived to be gay was published, Obama took larger leads in the polls, but Romney and the Republicans attacked Obama for falsely saying the economy was doing well, for welfare waivers and also China's unfair trade practices. Throughout much of the summer, May, July and August, with the exception of June, the polls stayed close as Romney made several "gaffes" on a foreign trip to Europe and Israel while visiting that month during the time of the 2012 Summer Olympics. Romney was also hurt by the release of a speech he delivered at a campaign fundraiser. In it, he suggested that 47 percent of Americans, who did not pay federal income taxes, would "vote for the President, no matter what," because they felt "entitled to health care, to food, to housing - you name it."

After the conventions, it was clear that Obama had the lead as he led in all polls from every major publication. However, after Obama's poor showing in the first debate, Romney took the lead and had the polls tied in early October, up to mid October. From mid-October onward, the Democrats regained their momentum. Obama won re-election by a relatively close margin in the popular vote, but by a large margin in the Electoral College.

2016 [ citation needed ]
Month Donald Trump (R) % Hillary Clinton (D) % Gary Johnson (L) % Jill Stein (G) %
June 35% 40% 5% 3%
37% 42% 8% 5%
July 37% 41% 7% 4%
38% 41% 8% 4%
40% 39% 7% 3%
August 38% 42% 7% 3%
36% 44% 9% 4%
38% 42% 8% 3%
September 38% 41% 8% 3%
41% 42% 9% 3%
41% 44% 7% 2%
October 39% 44% 7% 2%
39% 46% 7% 2%
40% 46% 6% 2%
43% 45% 5% 2%
November 43% 45% 4% 2%
42% 46% 4% 2%
Actual result 46.09% 48.18% 3.28% 1.13%
Difference between actual result and final poll +4.09% +2.18% -0.72% -0.87%

Political outsider and businessman Donald Trump and former First Lady and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton were seen unfavorably by many pollsters and pundits throughout the election, with many predicting Trump would lose in a likely blowout to Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton.

However, Trump was able to win over many white blue-collar workers within the Great Lakes and Rust Belt regions, which for many years had been Democratic strongholds, thus allowing Trump to win the Electoral College even though he lost the national popular vote by slightly over 2%. [19]


Diff'rent Strokes was initially devised to serve as a vehicle for both Conrad Bain and Gary Coleman. Bain had recently finished a six-year run co-starring as Dr. Arthur Harmon on the hugely successful Maude. When that series ended production following an unsuccessful revamp in spring 1978, Tandem Productions producer Norman Lear was keen to find a suitable sitcom for Bain to star in. Ten-year-old Coleman, meanwhile, had caught producers' attention after appearing in a number of commercials and TV guest roles, and the previous year had starred in three pilot episodes by Lear that attempted to revive the Little Rascals film series of the 1920-40s. The pilots did not sell (although were later edited into a TV Movie for some markets), but Lear saw immense potential in Coleman and was determined to find him a suitable sitcom, and it was decided that Bain and Coleman would make a good, if unusual, pairing for the project.

With Bain himself having considerable input into the options available and directions they took, producers considered a number of settings and formats, including one in which Bain was a gumshoe, with Coleman as his young associate-cum-informant. [4] The fictional detective Bulldog Drummond served as inspiration for what would have been Bain's character, and although this concept was ultimately dropped, the surname "Drummond" was retained to become the surname of Bain's character in Diff'rent Strokes.

Several such concepts were toyed with before a rough outline for the eventual series - in which Bain plays a wealthy businessman left to take care of his late housekeeper's son, the orphaned Coleman - was settled upon, and given the working title 45 Minutes from Harlem (even though Harlem is only 10–15 minutes away from the Upper East Side by subway or taxi). [5] (An alternate version of the basic scenario had a slightly harder-nosed Bain as a wealthy estate developer who finds that he can only purchase a potentially lucrative Harlem housing block for redevelopment if he also takes custody of the orphan, Coleman, who lives there this version was nixed in favor of the former).

NBC showed immediate interest, feeling the format had potential, and at their request the pitch was developed, with Coleman's character, Arnold, gaining an older brother, producers feeling Coleman would benefit from the addition of a second, slightly older child to interact with, and who could add a further dynamic to storylines. To play this older brother, producers immediately decided upon Bridges, himself already having appeared in a number of commercials and guest roles, and who had impressed them in his role in the sitcom Fish, which had also been cancelled earlier in 1978 Bridges was offered the role without needing an audition. The pitch meeting to NBC took place on Friday 9th May 1978, [6] with NBC immediately ordering an optional 26 episodes. A daughter to Bain's character and a housekeeper were added to the lineup - producer Al Burton had spotted Dana Plato as part of a cheerleading team auditioning on The Gong Show and felt she had a spark about her, and recommended her for the role of Drummond's daughter Kimberly [7] whilst producers were keen to cast Charlotte Rae as housekeeper Edna Garrett, feeling that her more "traditional sitcom" talents would work well for the unusual line-up and that as an older character she would have good chemistry with Bain. As with Bridges, Rae was offered the role without audition, but was locked into a contract with CBS however, Lear was determined to have Rae for the role and used his influence to convince CBS to release her from her contract, freeing her up to be available for the role. [8] The title for the series eventually became Diff'rent Strokes, inspired by the phrase "Different strokes for different folks", popularized by boxer Muhammad Ali in 1966 (Ali himself makes a guest appearance in the second season). [9]

The sitcom stars Coleman as Arnold Jackson and Bridges as his older brother, Willis, two children from a poor section of Harlem whose deceased mother previously worked for rich widower Philip Drummond (Bain), and on her deathbed asked him to take care of her sons, their father already being deceased. They live in a penthouse with Drummond, his daughter Kimberly (Plato), and their housemaid. At the outset of the series, the role of housemaid is filled by Rae as Mrs. Garrett when Rae departed for spin-off series The Facts of Life during the second season, she was replaced by Adelaide Brubaker (Volz), who in turn, was replaced by Pearl Gallagher (Catlett) from the fifth season until the end of the run. They lived in the Penthouse Suite at 697 Park Avenue in New York City. As Arnold, Coleman popularized the catchphrase "What'chu talkin' 'bout, Willis?" with the ending varied depending on whom he was addressing. Early episodes mostly address typical family sit-com issues, but as the series progresses, it sometimes focuses on more serious topics, including drug abuse, alcoholism, hitchhiking, child abuse and crime.

Seasons 1–2 (1978–80) Edit

The first season dealt with common topics such as various growing-up and adjustment issues experienced by Arnold and Willis, and mild culture clashes. Plots that saw Mr. Drummond searching for love, and stories that mildly addressed racism, also sometimes featured.

Although billed on the opening credits of each episode, Plato appeared only semi-regularly for much of the first season. On-screen this was explained with her character often said to be away at her private school in reality this producers were still undecided whether the character was extraneous to the format, with the option that she could simply be faded into the background and written out as away studying should they choose to drop her. But Plato and her character were well received by audiences, and the producers became convinced that her inclusion added an extra element of appeal to the audience, offering a female character for young girls and women to identify with. As a result, from the later first season and on into the second season, Plato became a regular, the extremities of her initial tomboyish characteristics being toned down in the process.

During the first season, the unseen character "The Gooch" is first mentioned as a mean, hulking bully at Arnold's school. First mentioned in the first-season episode The Fight, where he is said to be bullying Arnold at school, The Gooch is the focus of several more episodes and mentioned in numerous others. (Scenes from The Fight are actually seen in the prior episode, the hour-long clip show Retrospective, which was brought forward in airing order due to its Christmas setting).

Charlotte Rae appeared as Edna Garrett in every first-season episode the final broadcast episode of the first season, The Girl's School, also known as Garrett's Girls, sees her agreeing to act as the temporary housemother of Kimberly's private school, the fictional Eastland in actuality, this episode acted as the backdoor pilot for the spin-off series The Facts of Life (Garrett's Girls being an early working title). Mrs. Garrett is present for the first 13 episodes of the second season of Diff'rent Strokes, the character last seen in the episode The Rivals, after which she leaves, offscreen, to take a permanent position at Eastland, The Facts of Life having by then been picked up for a full series. (Kimberly did not become a regular character in that series, although the two shows had a number of crossovers.)

Following Rae's departure midway through the second season, Nedra Volz took over as the housekeeper, the older and crankier Adelaide Brubaker, introduced in the episode The Election. Volz appeared on a semi-regular basis, but was not added to the opening credits, instead always credited with the guest cast on the closing credits. The reason for this, in part, was that it was in Rae's contract that she be allowed to return to Diff'rent Strokes should The Facts of Life be cancelled.

Also first appearing in the second season was Arnold's best friend Dudley Johnson (Shavar Ross), first seen in the episode Teacher's Pet. Robbie Jason (Steven Mond), another recurring school friend, also makes his first appearance in that episode. Arnold and Dudley (and often Robbie) shared many childhood escapades together, and were featured in many episodes, school-based and otherwise, throughout the show's run. As part of this, Arnold's school life also gradually began to feature more in many episodes this increased in subsequent seasons.

The first and second season also included several hour-long crossover episodes (edited into two-part format for syndication and overseas broadcasts) with NBC sitcom Hello, Larry, which had been moved to the slot immediately following Diff'rent Strokes in an effort to boost its ratings (an effort that ultimately failed it was axed after the end of its second season).

Seasons 3–4 (1980–82) Edit

The third and fourth seasons, which saw some of the show's highest ratings [ citation needed ] , continued much of the themes of the first two seasons, but also gradually saw the introduction of some more serious topics into storylines. Beginning with the third-season episode Count Your Blessings and also touched upon in several other episodes is the fact that Arnold will never grow much taller, reflecting Gary Coleman's real-life medical condition. This same episode introduces wheelchair-aided Melanie Watson, born with osteogenesis imperfecta, as Kathy Gordon, who continued to guest-star one episode per season until Season 6.

Also introduced in the third season is Philip's dotty sister Sophia (Dody Goodman), in the episode Junk Food Junkie. Appearing on a semi-regular basis, she effectively filled the same function as Adelaide as the older female character in many stories, and is present in many third and fourth season episodes.

Other recurring characters introduced over the third season included Le Tari as Dudley's adoptive father, Ted Ramsey (in the episode Football Father), Janet Jackson as Willis's girlfriend Charlene DuPrey and, in the fourth season episode Kathy, Arnold's teacher Miss Chung, played by Rosalind Chao, who had played a different character in the third-season episode Almost American, in which the regular cast only have minor roles, which served as the backdoor pilot for a potential sitcom focusing on the students of an immigration and naturalization class. The pilot was not picked up for a series, and was the only time the characters and setting appeared in Diff'rent Strokes.

Due to a dispute regarding pay, [10] [11] Coleman did not appear in the first four filmed episodes of the fourth season (The Ski Weekend, First Day Blues, The Team and Hello Daddy?), with a separately filmed cameo tagged on to the end of one episode explaining that he was away in the country visiting some of Mr. Drummond's relatives. The final two episodes produced for the third season (Growing Up and The Model) had originally been postponed due to a writer's strike, [12] [13] and the interspersing of these two episodes with the ones without Coleman filmed at the start of the fourth season allowed the span of his absence to be broken down onscreen. When the dispute was ultimately settled, Coleman returned to the series, missing only two more episodes (season 7's The Gymnasts and Baseball Blues).

Due to the popularity of Coleman's character, a spin-off series was briefly considered, to be titled Arnold and focusing on the character's school life [ citation needed ] . But the idea was dropped, both due to producers not wanting to water the character's appeal in the main series down, and deciding that the additional workload was too much for Coleman. [ citation needed ] .

Seasons 5–6 (1982–84) Edit

The second episode of the fifth season, In The Swim, introduced Mary Jo Catlett as the rotund, ever-cheerful Pearl Gallagher, the last of the Drummond household's three maids. Catlett joined the main cast, appeared in almost every episode until the end of the show's run, and was billed on the opening credits from the sixth season onward. In The Swim also saw the move of Kimberly from her private school, to the one attended by Willis—a move brought about in part at Plato's suggestion, with it being felt it might open up potential new storylines.

The fifth season also introduced a new recurring character in Arnold's class at school, that of Lisa Hayes (Nikki Swasey). Although in her first appearance, in the episode Cyrano De Jackson, she is sweet on Arnold, in subsequent appearances, the pair were enemies, often squabbling and trading insults, a recurring theme until the end of the series (although Lisa's final appearance, in the penultimate episode of the show's run, The Photo Club, sees the pair addressing their differences and striking a truce of sorts).

The fifth season also continued the upturn of many more serious-themed stories, which became the epitome of "Very Special Episodes" in 1980s sitcoms, [14] a trend that continued until the end of the show's run, the best-known example [15] being the fifth season's two-part story The Bicycle Man (originally broadcast on February 5 and 12, 1983), in which Arnold and Dudley are lured in by pedophilic bicycle shop owner Mr. Horton (Gordon Jump) who attempts to molest them.

Midway through the sixth season, Plato became pregnant and approached the producers of the show to include her pregnancy. Initially they agreed to add it, but they later decided not to (although a previous episode, the third season's Little Mother, had tackled a similar theme, when Kimberly's friend falls pregnant and, due to a misunderstanding, it is thought that Kimberly is pregnant). Plato's publicized brushes with substance abuse contributed to this decision, resulting in her dismissal from the series at the end of the sixth season.

By this time, while still pulling in reasonable viewing figures, ratings were beginning to fall, so producers decided to add several new characters to the cast to freshen the series up and open up future storylines. Dixie Carter and Danny Cooksey portrayed recently divorced television aerobics instructor Margaret "Maggie" McKinney and her son Sam. [16] Carter was introduced midway into the sixth season (in the episode Drummond's Lady) after she abruptly left for California, Drummond and the family took off after her, in the two-part story Hooray for Hollywood, a storyline that also introduced Sam, Maggie's son from her previous marriage. Phillip proposed to Maggie and they married, in the episode The Wedding, first broadcast February 25, 1984. Several past characters attended the wedding ceremony, including Dudley, Aunt Sophia, Adelaide and Mrs. Garrett.

Season 7 (1984–85) Edit

In the seventh season, Carter and Cooksey were added to the opening credits (with Carter getting special "and" billing, last in the order) and many new areas and ideas were explored, as viewers now got to see Philip as a happily married man.

Due to Plato's pregnancy and publicized substance abuse issues, she had been dropped from the regular cast at the end of the previous season. Kimberly was written out of the show with the explanation that she moved to Paris to study for a couple of years, but returned as a guest star for the season finale A Special Friend, after Plato gave birth.

Since there was a new fresh-faced kid in the house with Sam, Arnold now had his own little sidekick and was happy to be a "big brother" for a change. With Willis dropped into the background slightly, this new brotherly duo took center stage for many storylines. In the season, Bridges continued as a main cast member, but was absent in several episodes. Additionally, stories focusing on Arnold's school life, which had featured occasionally in many previous seasons, were delved into much more. The ratings did not improve, sinking further over the course of the season.

Season 8 (1985–86) Edit

The introduction of Maggie and Sam had not boosted ratings, and in the spring of 1985, in the face of sagging ratings, NBC canceled Diff'rent Strokes. But ABC picked up the series for an eighth season, airing it on Friday nights. With this move, the show's recognizable opening credits theme song was rerecorded, updating it into a then-more modern pop style.

Dixie Carter opted not to return to the series. It was stated that she had left to star in her own series, Designing Women, but she and Coleman had often clashed, leading to tension and animosity on set. [10] She was replaced in the role by Mary Ann Mobley, who had previously played an unrelated, one-off love interest of Drummond's in the second-season episode Teacher's Pet. She had been considered for Maggie when the role was created, but was not chosen in part due to age disparity between her and Bain. [17]

In this final season, Jason Hervey joined the semi-regular cast as Charlie, another of Arnold's school friends. First seen in the episode Bully For Arnold, a number of storylines focus on Arnold, Dudley, Robbie and Jason as a quartet. Plots focusing on Arnold and Sam also continued to feature prominently, with Willis by this stage appearing on a secondary, semi-regular basis.

Following her guest appearance at the end of the previous season, Plato returned to make several further guest appearances in the final season, billed with the guest cast. The episode Bulimia, Plato's final appearance in the series, dealt with the revelation of Kimberly's eating disorder, and won praise both for Plato's performance and the sensitivity of the writing.

ABC canceled the series after 19 episodes of the proposed 22-episode season, a result of low ratings and feeling that the series had run its course, although it was also observed that by this time, the once joyous Coleman, now 17, was looking angry and haggard, [11] a combination of his ongoing medical issues and a bitter financial dispute with his parents.

The final episode, The Front Page, aired on March 7, 1986, saw Arnold writing a report on athletes at his school who are using anabolic steroids, and was in many respects a standard episode, with no signs that it would serve as the show's finale due as a result of the axe falling on the series. Bridges, Plato and Catlett were all absent from the episode, and several cast members later voiced their disappointment that they had not realized it would be the final episode, and would have liked to have been present to mark the end of the series onscreen more adequately. [ citation needed ]

Following cancellation, the show returned to ABC's schedule in June for three months of summer reruns, which ended on August 30, 1986. The final season ranked 69th out of 106 shows and averaged an 11.5 household rating [18]

Main Edit

    as Phillip Drummond as Arnold Jackson as Willis Jackson as Kimberly Drummond (1978–84, 1985–86 recurring) as Edna Garrett (1978–79) as Adelaide Brubaker (1980–84) as Pearl Gallagher (1982–86) as Maggie McKinney Drummond #1 (1984–85) as Maggie McKinney Drummond #2 (1985–86) and as Ms. Osbourne as Sam McKinney (1984–86)

Recurring Edit

    as Charlene DuPrey (1980–84) as Sophia Drummond (1981–84) as Dudley Johnson (1980–86) as Ted Ramsey (1980–84) as Miss Chung (1981–83) as Robbie Jason (1980–85) as Charlie (1985–86)
  • Nikki Swasey as Lisa Hayes (1982–86)

Phillip Drummond is the only character to appear in every episode of the series. Arnold Jackson missed five episodes, two from the fourth season in 1981–82 (“First Day Blues" and "The Team") and three from the seventh season in 1984–85 ("The Gymnasts", "Sam Adopts a Grandparent" and "Baseball Blues").

Supporting characters Edit

Outside the Drummond household, there were a large number of supporting characters over the years. Phillip's slightly dotty sister Sophia (Dody Goodman) was regularly seen in the fourth season, playing matchmaker for her brother in hopes of getting him to remarry. Dudley Johnson (Shavar Ross) was Arnold's new best friend, who, like Arnold, was adopted, and with whom he shared many memorable childhood scrapes. Some of these were important or serious storylines under the "very special episode" heading, which Diff'rent Strokes popularized. Ted Ramsey (Le Tari) was Dudley's adoptive father, who turned up occasionally. In the third season, Janet Jackson played Willis's girlfriend, Charlene DuPrey. She was a frequent recurring character until the sixth season, when Charlene and Willis break up but remain friends. Other classmates and friends of Arnold seen over time included Robbie Jason (Steven Mond) and snobby Lisa Hayes (Nikki Swasey), who initially was sweet on Arnold, but later came to despise him, leading to hatred between the pair and many squabbles. Miss Chung (Rosalind Chao) was Arnold's teacher. In the fall of 1985, when the series moved to ABC for the seventh season, Arnold, Dudley and Lisa entered high school, where they gained a new friend in Charlie (Jason Hervey). An oft-mentioned character, spanning the entire show's run, was "The Gooch", a notorious bully at Arnold's school. First mentioned in the first-season episode "The Fight", which revolves around his bullying of Arnold, he is mentioned in numerous episodes (and his bullying of Arnold returned as the center of several plots), with Arnold's frequent descriptions of him as a burly, troublesome brute, forever looking for trouble but not very smart. The character never appeared onscreen. In the seventh season, after years of harassing Arnold (and later Sam), the Gooch was finally defeated by Arnold's neighbor and nemesis Carmella, a foreign exchange student.

SeasonEpisodesOriginally airedRankRating
First airedLast airedNetwork
124November 3, 1978 ( 1978-11-03 ) May 4, 1979 ( 1979-05-04 ) NBC2719.9
226September 21, 1979 ( 1979-09-21 ) March 26, 1980 ( 1980-03-26 ) 2620.3
322November 12, 1980 ( 1980-11-12 ) May 13, 1981 ( 1981-05-13 ) 1720.7 [a]
426October 29, 1981 ( 1981-10-29 ) May 20, 1982 ( 1982-05-20 ) 36N/A
524October 2, 1982 ( 1982-10-02 ) May 14, 1983 ( 1983-05-14 ) 51N/A
624October 1, 1983 ( 1983-10-01 ) May 12, 1984 ( 1984-05-12 ) 50N/A [b]
724September 29, 1984 ( 1984-09-29 ) May 4, 1985 ( 1985-05-04 ) 3714.7
819September 27, 1985 ( 1985-09-27 ) March 7, 1986 ( 1986-03-07 ) ABC6911.5

Very special episodes Edit

Diff'rent Strokes was also known for its many "very special episodes", most notably an anti-drug episode ("The Reporter") that featured First Lady Nancy Reagan, who promoted her "Just Say No" campaign and "The Bicycle Man", a two-part episode that guest starred Gordon Jump as a pedophile who lures Arnold and Dudley into his bicycle shop and attempts to molest them. Another episode involved a con artist (played by Whitman Mayo) posing as a relative of Arnold and Willis in an attempt to get access to the inheritance they were left by a former neighbor. Another episode ("Skin Deep or True Blue") involved Kimberly's new boyfriend, Roger Morehouse (played by Grant Wilson), not allowing his sister, Emily (Melora Hardin), to go to their school's costume ball with Willis because he is black. A more humorous episode on pollution and the environment ("Green Hair") had Kimberly's hair turning green from acid rain. In a two-part episode on the dangers of hitchhiking ("The Hitchhikers"), Kimberly and Arnold (who were out in the cold weather and didn't have money for cab or bus fare) were abducted by a serial kidnapper-rapist (played by Woody Eney), who initially acted as a good Samaritan by giving the two of them a ride and inviting them to his apartment. After the man's true nature became known, Arnold escaped to look for help and the man nearly raped Kimberly before the police arrived to arrest him. At the end of the episode, Bain (in an out-of-character PSA) spoke about what to do if real life situations as the one portrayed on the show were to occur. Two notable episodes dealt with the consequences of alcoholism. In the first, season 5's "A Growing Problem", Willis moves out of the penthouse to live with Jerry (Lawrence Monoson) who abuses alcohol. In the second, season 7's "Cheers to Arnold", Arnold must deal with Ricky (Robert Jayne), a classmate whom he catches drinking a thermos of alcohol in the school bathroom. In the final season (when the sitcom moved from NBC to ABC), the one-hour season opener ("Sam's Missing") revolved around Sam being kidnapped by Donald Brown (Royce D. Applegate), a bereaved father hoping to replace his own dead son, Tommy. In other notable episodes, such as season 8's "Bulimia", the family discovered that Kimberly was suffering from bulimia. In another episode, season 7's "A Special Friend", Arnold and Sam met Karen, a street performer. After a performance, she has an epileptic seizure and Sam thinks she's dying. The boys then feel uncomfortable around her and when they begin making jokes about her seizures, they find out that housekeeper Pearl herself has epilepsy but, unlike Karen, controls her seizures with medication.

Spin-off and crossovers Edit

The Facts of Life (1979–1988) is a spin-off of Diff'rent Strokes featuring Drummond's former housekeeper, Mrs. Garrett, who had accepted a job as the housemother for a dormitory at Eastland, an all-girls private school that Kimberly was attending. In a late first-season episode of Strokes ("The Girls School", which served as the backdoor pilot of Facts), Mrs. Garrett took Kimberly to the school with the intent of helping her sew costumes for a school play. While there, Mrs. Garrett met Kimberly's classmates and was offered the job as "dorm mother." She declined, but come fall, she had a change of heart. The Diff'rent Strokes cast appeared in the first episode of The Facts of Life (at one point, Drummond asks Mrs. Garrett "Are you sure we can't change your mind to come back to us?"). The success of the spin-off led to several Strokes/Facts crossovers in the ensuing years. While not a spin-off, Hello, Larry (1979–1980) had a connection to Strokes as it was established in a crossover episode that Philip Drummond and Larry Alder (McLean Stevenson) were old Army buddies and Mr. Drummond had bought the company that owned the radio station where Larry worked as a talk show host. The episode "Almost American" (aka "Night School"), was the pilot for a potential spin-off series, which ultimately was not picked up for a full series. [19] In addition, whilst not official in-universe cross-overs, two sixth season stories saw characters encountering stars of two of NBC's other biggest shows - the episode Mr. T and mr. t sees Mr. T guest starring when the apartment block is used to film a (fictional) episode of The A-Team whilst in the two-part Hooray for Hollywood, Arnold and Dudley sneak onto the set of a (again fictional) episode of Knight Rider in hope of meeting series star David Hasselhoff. (Although Hasselhoff, in his costume as Michael Knight appears, the voice of K.I.T.T. is not provided by William Daniels, who voices K.I.T.T. in the television series, but by an uncredited voice actor who voiced of the car for various Universal Studios promotions.) Additionally, Arnold appeared on the Silver Spoons episode "The Great Computer Caper" and the Amazing Stories episode "Remote Control Man."

Later appearances as the characters Edit

In 1994, Coleman appeared in an episode of Married. with Children ("How Green Was My Apple"), playing a building code inspector whom Al Bundy (Ed O'Neill) called to report an illegal driveway. When Kelly (Christina Applegate) recognizes him, he denies any connection to Arnold Jackson, but utters his catchphrase to Al, "What'chu talkin' about, Bundy?" In 1996, Coleman and Bain reprised their roles for the series finale of The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air entitled "I, Done Part II", where they consider buying the Banks mansion, they reference Willis by name before meeting Will Smith's character, leading to Coleman uttering a variation of his catchphrase, "What'chu talkin' about, Will?"

Additional catchphrase references and appearances in popular culture Edit

In 2004, Coleman appeared on the second season of The Surreal Life and was pressured to quote his famous catchphrase by Vanilla Ice. [20] [21] He also guest-starred as himself on The Wayans Bros., The Ben Stiller Show, Drake & Josh, The Jamie Foxx Show, The Parkers, Robot Chicken and The Simpsons.

Following the cancellation of Diff'rent Strokes in 1986, Coleman, Bridges and Plato encountered difficulty in obtaining acting jobs. All three experienced various legal problems while Bridges and Plato also struggled with drug addictions, all of which were documented in the press. The press and fans of the series blamed the cast's personal problems and faltering careers on what was eventually dubbed the "curse of Diff'rent Strokes" by various tabloids. [22]

Gary Coleman Edit

In 1989, three years after the series ended, Coleman sued his parents and his former manager over misappropriation of his trust fund. Although he was awarded over $1,000,000 in the decision, he filed for bankruptcy in 1999. In 1998, Coleman was charged with assault after he punched a woman while working as a security guard at a shopping mall. In 2001, Coleman (still working as a security guard) was videotaped trying to stop a vehicle from entering the mall. The driver ridiculed him and released the tape to be broadcast on numerous television shows. [23] In 2007, Coleman was cited for disorderly conduct in Provo, Utah, for having a "heated discussion" with a woman. [24] On May 26, 2010, Coleman, who had battled health problems since childhood caused by congenital kidney disease, was admitted to Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo after falling and hitting his head after suffering a seizure. Coleman was then placed on life support after suffering an intracranial hemorrhage and died on May 28 from complications of his injury at age 42. [25]

Dana Plato Edit

During the series' sixth season, Plato became pregnant and her character was written out of the series (though she would go on to make guest appearances for the final two seasons). In 1984, she married the father of her child, musician Lanny Lambert, but the couple divorced in 1990. Due to financial difficulties and her growing addiction to drugs and alcohol, Plato relinquished custody of her son, Tyler, to Lambert. In an attempt to boost her faltering career, Plato posed for Playboy in June 1989, but her appearance in the magazine did not help her land acting jobs. [22] By 1990, Plato was living in Las Vegas. Despite having made $25,000 an episode while on the series, she was often broke and was working as a cashier at a dry cleaning store. [26] In February 1991, she was arrested after robbing a Las Vegas video store armed with a pellet gun. She was arrested the following year for forging prescriptions for Valium. [27] In 1998, she appeared in a softcore pornographic film entitled Different Strokes: The Story of Jack and Jill. and Jill, which was intended to capitalize on her Diff'rent Strokes fame. [22] After her arrests, Plato publicly admitted that she struggled with an addiction to drugs and alcohol. [28] Plato died of a drug overdose in 1999 at age 34. Her death was ruled a suicide. [29] Her son, Tyler, died by suicide in 2010.

Todd Bridges Edit

After the series ended, Bridges developed an addiction to cocaine. In February 1988, he was arrested and charged with the attempted murder of a drug dealer at a crack house in South Central Los Angeles. He was acquitted in November 1989. [30] Bridges was also arrested on a concealed weapon charge and possession of cocaine. [22] In 1994, he was arrested after allegedly ramming someone's car after an argument. [31] After years of battling his drug addiction, Bridges became sober in the early 1990s. [32] He now travels across the United States, touring schools and discussing the dangers of drug use. [33] Bridges has continued acting in films and television. His more high-profile role was as Monk, a shell-shocked Vietnam veteran, conspiracy theorist, and nephew of Chris's boss Doc on the sitcom Everybody Hates Chris. [34] With Charlotte Rae's death in 2018 at the age of 92, Bridges is now the only living member of the original cast.

Two unofficial docudramas were produced about the show:

  • In 2000, Fox broadcast a one-hour television movie, After Diff'rent Strokes: When the Laughter Stopped. This film, which starred unknown actors, focused on Plato's life after the show, leading to her suicide. Bridges guest starred in this film as a drug dealer who sold drugs to a younger version of himself. [35]
  • On September 4, 2006, NBC aired a television drama titled Behind the Camera: The Unauthorized Story of Diff'rent Strokes. This film, which chronicles the rise and decline of the sitcom's child stars, also features recent interview clips with Coleman and Bridges. The two also star in the movie as themselves (briefly) in the final scene, standing by Plato's grave. [36]

Sony Pictures Home Entertainment has released Seasons 1 and 2 of Diff'rent Strokes on DVD in Region 1 & 4. Season 1 was also released in Regions 2 & 5 on October 6, 2008. [37] On September 29, 2009, a "Fan Favorites" DVD was released. This is a one disc compilation consisting of eight episodes from Season 2. [38]

On April 6, 2012, it was announced that Shout! Factory had acquired the rights to the series they subsequently released the third season on DVD on July 17, 2012. [39] Season 4 was released on November 20, 2012. [40] Season 5 was released on April 4, 2017. [41] Season 6 was released on July 25, 2017. [42] Season 7 was released on February 27, 2018. [43] Season 8 was released on May 29, 2018. [44]

On August 27, 2013, it was announced that Mill Creek Entertainment had acquired the rights to various television series from the Sony Pictures library, including Diff'rent Strokes. [45] They subsequently re-released the first and second seasons on DVD on July 15, 2014. [46] au

The series had been graded its audio tracks to AAC 2 Channels. [ clarification needed ]

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Definition: The initial fee paid to a franchisor to join their system

What you need to know: Found in Item 5 of the FDD, this may be a flat fee, or may vary based on territory size, experience, or other factors.The franchise fee is an up-front (one-time) cost that a new franchisee pays to the franchisor. This fee is usually due at the signing of the franchise agreement and covers the right to use the franchisor's trademarks, name, and related business systems.

Definition: The total amount necessary to begin operation of the franchise

What you need to know: The initial investment includes the franchise fee, along with other startup expenses such as real estate, equipment, supplies, business licenses, and working capital. This is outlined in a chart in Item 7 of the FDD, showing a range of possible costs from low to high.

Definition: The minimum net worth you must have in order to qualify to become a franchisee of this company

What you need to know: Net worth is the value of a person's assets minus liabilities. Assets include cash, stocks, retirement accounts, and real estate. Liabilities include items like mortgages, car payments, and credit card debt.

Definition: The minimum liquid capital you must have available in order to qualify to become a franchisee of this company.