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(ScGbt; t. 507; 1. 168'; b. 28'; dph. 12'; e. 4 k.; a. 1 11"
sb., 1 20-pdr. r., 2 24-pdr. sb.)
The third Chippewa, a wooden screw steamer gunboat, was launched 14 September 1861 by Webb and Bell New York; outfitted at New York Navy Yard, and commissioned 13 December 1861, Lieutenant Andrew Bryson in command.
Sailing from New York 25 December 1861 Chippewa took station on the blockade between Fort Monroe, VA. and Hatteras Inlet, N.C., remaining there until 9 August 1862 except for a brief repair period at Baltimore Md. 8-13 March. During this time she exchanged fire with the enemy at Forts Macon and Caswell and Federal Point Batteries, and assisted in the capture of a blockade runner, the English brig Napier 29 July 1862. Chippewa arrived at the Washington Navy Yard, 10 August 1862.
Returning to Fort Monroe she departed from there 18 October 1862 on a cruise in search of CSS Florida which took her to the Azores; Algerians and Cadiz, Spain; Gibraltar; Funchal, Madeira, Porto Grande, Africa
Cape Verde Islands, and various ports in the West Indies. Returning to Port Royal, S.C., 30 May 1863, she resumed patrols with the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia. She participated in the attacks on Fort Wagner S.C. from 13 to 21 July 1863, and opened fire on enemy pickets up Broad River, S.C., on 12 November. After repairs at Philadelphia Navy Yard, she returned to North Carolina to take part in the bombardments and capture of Fort Fisher in December 1864 and January 1865 and Fort Anderson, Cape Fear River, N.C., in February 1865.
Chippewa departed Wilmington, N.C., 1 March 1865 and steamed up the James River for patrol duty until 15 May, engaging enemy batteries at Dutch Gap Canal on 1 and 2 April.
After cruising to Havana, Cuba, between 17 May and 12 June 1865, Chippewa arrived at Boston 17 June where she was decommssioned 24 June 1865, taken to New York 29 June and sold there 30 November 1865.
Chippewa Boots, originally known as Chippewa Shoe Manufacturing Company, is a manufacturer of footwear, principally men's work and recreational boots. It also manufactures a limited line of heavy and casual shoes, and some women's footwear. It was founded in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, in 1901.  In 1984 it was acquired by Justin Brands, which was in turn acquired by Berkshire Hathaway in August 2000.  Other companies under Justin Brands include Justin Boots, Justin Original Workboots, Nocona Boots, and Tony Lama Boots.
- ^Heritage: A Retrospect of the Chippewa Story - Chippewa Boots U.S.A.Archived 2013-12-14 at the Wayback Machine. ChippewaBoots.com. Retrieved on Dec 10, 2013.
- ^Justin Boots HeritageArchived 2013-12-13 at the Wayback Machine. JustinBoots.com. Retrieved on Dec 10, 2013.
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Chippewa SCGbt - History
(ScGbt: t. 593 1. 190' b. 29' dr. 11'3" s. 11.5 k. cpl. 96 a. 1 100-pdr. P.r., 1 30-pdr. P.r., 4 24-pdrs., 1 12-pdr.r.)
The first Maumee was launched by the New York Navy Yard 2 July 1863 and commissioned 29 September 1864. Lt. Comdr. Ralph Chandler in command.
The new gunboat sailed for Hampton Roads 2 October and joined the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron there on the 8th. She got underway on the 26th, seeking Confederate cruiser Tallahasee, then preying on northern merchantmen near Boston. After steaming as far north as Halifax,, Nova Scotia, she returned to New York, 8 November, en route back to Hampton Roads to prepare for an attack on Fort Fisher which protected Wilmington, N.C.
The first assault made on Christmas Eve was unsuccessful, but the Union ships returned 13 January 1863 and shelled the southern stronghold while troops were landed. They supported the Union ground forces during a 2-day campaign which carried the Confederate works on the 13th, closing the vital southern port.
On 13 February Maumee was ordered up Cape Fear River to support Army operations, and 10 days later she was assigned to the James River for similar action. In March, when the Confederate capitol of Richmond fell, Maumee was one of the vessels assigned occupation duty along the waterfront.
After the war, Maumee sailed to Philadelphia, where she decommissioned 17 June 1863 and was sold to a Mr. Landstein of Hong Kong 15 December 1869.
Chippewa SCGbt - History
The Kanawha was launched 21 October 1861 by G. E. & W. H. Goodspeed, East Hadden, Gonn., and commissioned at New York Navy Yard 21 January 1862, Lt. John C. Febiger in command.
Assigned to the Gulf Blockading Squadron, the new gunboat arrived off Pass a l'Outre, La., 13 February and a week later was ordered to take station o
Mobile, Ala., where she soon distinguished herself for vigilance.
She drew first blood with a vengeance 10 April capturing four blockade running schooners in a single day: Southern Independence, Victoria, Gharlotte, and Ouba. The first three had attempted to slip to sea laden with cotton and naval stores while the latter had tfied to run into Mobile with supplies badly needed by the South.
Thereafter, her kills were frequent. She caught schooner R. C. Files carrying cotton out of Mobile 21 April and took British sloop Annie on the 29th between Ship Island and Mobile headed for Cuba. On 17 November near Mobile she and Kennebec chased an unidentified schooner ashore where she was set afire by her crew. Then the guns of the Union ships assured her complete destruction by preventing Confederate coast guards from boarding her to extinguish the Hames.
On 25 March 1863 Kanawha, then commanded by Lt. Comdr. William K. Mayo, took schooner Clara attempting to run the blockade at Mobile. Sehooner Dart attempted to slip into Mobile from EIavana 1 May but fell prey to this vigilant blockader. A fortnight later the same fate befell British brig Comet some 20 miles east of Fort Morgan, Ala. On 17 May Kanawha snared schooner Hunter, laden with cotton for Havana, running out of Mobile. The next day she caught schooner Ripple attempting the same feat.
Dawn of 12 October disclosed steamer Alice aground
under the guns of Fort Morgan and an unidentifled Confederate tug attempting to pull her free. Kanawha, accompanied by tender Fugenie, steamed boldly toward the strongly defended Confederate shore to destroy the Southern vessels but Fort Morgan's batteries, outranging the guns of the Union ships, hulled Kanawha, forcing the Union ships to retire. Lackawanna and Genessee then headed in to finish the task with their 150-pounders, but before they got in range, the daring tug managed to refloat Alice and escaped with her into Mobile Bay.
On 29 November Kanawha took schooner AIbert, also called Wenona, attempting to carry cotton, naval stores and tobacco out of Mobile. The toll collected by relentless Northern blockaders like Kanawha in capturing Southern blockade runners steadily drained away the life blood of the Confederacy. The loss of ships carrying the products of Southern flelds and forests to foreign markets undermined the South's financial structure and increased her difflculty in purchasing war material abroad. The loss of incoming ships depfived Southern armies of a growing proportion of the shrinking supplies and equipment persuasive Confederate agents did manage to procure.
In the spring of 1864 Kanawha was transferred to the Texas coast. On 8 July, now under Lt. Comdr. Bushrod B. Taylor, she forced steamer Matagorda aground near Galveston. On9 September, after Union troops had been withdrawn from the area, Kanawha reinstituted the blockade of Brownsville, Tex., which had been lifted by Presidential proclamation in mid-February. On 28 December she forced an unidentified sloop ashore near Caney Creek, Tex., and destroyed her. She captured Mary Ellen of Montreal 3 January 1865 as the schooner tried to run into Velasco, Tex. She remained on blockade duty until after the end of the war and was ordered north 27 May. Kanawha decommissioned 5 July and was sold at New York 13 June 1866.
Chippewa Indians, Ojibway Indians, Ojibway Tribe (popular adaptation of Ojibway, ‘to roast till puckered up,’ referring, to the puckered seam on their moccasins from ojib ‘to pucker up,’ ub-way ‘to roast’). One of the largest tribes North of Mexico, whose range was formerly along both shores of Lake Huron and Superior, extending across Minnesota Turtle Mountains, North Dakota. Although strong in numbers and occupying an extensive territory, the Chippewa were never prominent in history, owing to their remoteness from the frontier during the period of the colonial wars. According tradition they are part of an Algonquian body, including the Ottawa and Potawatomi, which separated into divisions when it reached Mackinaw in its westward movement, having come from so point north or northeast of Mackinaw. Warren 1 asserts that they were settled in a large village at La Pointe, Wis., about the time of the discovery of America, and Verwyst 2 says that about 1612 they suddenly abandoned this locality, many of them going back to the Sault, while others settled at, the west end of Lake Superior, where Father Allouez found there in 1665-67. There is nothing found to sustain the statement of Warren and Verwyst in regard to the early residence of the tribe at La Pointe.
They were first noticed in the Jesuit Relation of 1640 under the name Baouichtigouin (probably Bāwa`tigōwininiwŭg, `people of the Sault’), as residing at the Sault, and it is possible that Nicollet met them in 1634 or 1639. In 1642 they were visited by Raymbaut and Jogues, who found them at the Sault and at war with a people to the west, doubtless the Sioux. A remnant or offshoot of the tribe resided north of Lake Superior after the main body moved south to Sault Ste Marie, or when it had reached the vicinity of the Sault. The Marameg, a tribe closely related to if not an actual division of the Chippewa, who dwelt along the north shore of the lake, were apparently incorporated with the latter while they were at the Sault, or at any rate prior to 1670 (Jesuit Rel., 1670). On the north the Chippewa are so closely connected with the Cree and Maskegon that the three can be distinguished only by those intimately acquainted with their dialects and customs, while on the south the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi have always formed a sort of loose confederacy, frequently designated in the last century the Three Fires. It seems to be well established that some of the Chippewa have resided north of Lake Superior from time immemorial. These and the Marameg claimed the north side of the lake as their country. According to Perrot some of the Chippewa living south of Lake Superior in 1670-99, although relying chiefly on the chase, cultivated some maize, and were then at peace with the neighboring Sioux. It is singular that this author omits to mention wild rice (Zizania aquatica) among their food supplies, since the possession of wild-rice fields was one of the chief causes of their wars with the Dakota, Foxes, and other nations, and according to Jenks 3 10,000 Chippewa in the United States use it at the present time. About this period they first came into possession of firearms, and were pushing their way westward, alternately at peace and at war with the Sioux and in almost constant conflict with the Foxes. The French, in 1692, reestablished a trading post at Shaugawaumikong, now La Pointe, Island, Ashland County, Wis., which became an important Chippewa settlement. In the beginning of the 18th century the Chippewa succeeded in driving the Foxes, already reduced by war with the French, from north Wisconsin, compelling them to take refuge with the Sauk. They then turned against the Sioux, driving them across the Mississippi and south to Minnesota river, and continued their westward march across Minnesota and North Dakota until they, occupied the headwaters of Red river, and established their westernmost band in the Turtle mountains. It was not until after 1736 that they obtained a foothold west of Lake Superior. While the main divisions of the tribe were thus extending their possessions in the west, others overran the peninsula between Lake Huron and Lake Erie, which had long been claimed by the Iroquois through conquest. The Iroquois were forced to withdraw, and the whole region was occupied by the Chippewa bands, most of who are now known as Missisauga, although they still call themselves Ojibwa. The Chippewa took part with the other tribes of the northwest in all the wars against the frontier settlements to the close of the war of 1812. Those living within the United States made a treaty with the Government in 1815, and have since remained peaceful, all residing on reservations or allotted lands within their original territory in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota, with the exception of the small band of Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa, who sold their lands in south Michigan in 1836 and are now with the Munsee in Franklin County bands.
Schoolcraft, who was personally acquainted with the Chippewa and married a woman of the tribe, describes the Chippewa warriors as equaling in physical appearance the best formed of the northwest Indians, with the possible exception of the Foxes. Their long and successful contest with the Sioux and Foxes exhibited their bravery and determination, yet they were uniformly friendly in their relations with the French. The Chippewa area timber people. Although they have long been in friendly relations with the whites, Christianity has had but little effect on them, owing largely to the conservatism of the native medicine-men. It is affirmed by Warren, who is not disposed to accept any statement that tends to disparage the character of his people, that, according to tradition, the division of the tribe residing at La Pointe practiced cannibalism, while Fattier Belcourt affirms that, although the Chippewa of Canada treated the vanquished with most horrible barbarity and at these times ate human flesh, they looked upon cannibalism, except under such conditions, with horror. According to Dr William Jones 4 the Pillagers of Bear id. assert that cannibalism was occasionally practiced ceremonially by the Chippewa of Leech lake, and that since 1902 the eating of human flesh occurred on Rainy river during stress of hunger. It was the custom of the Pillager band to allow a warrior who scalped an enemy to wear on his head two eagle feathers, and the act of capturing a wounded prisoner on the battlefield earned the distinction of wearing five. Like the Ottawa, they were expert in the use, of the canoe, and in their early history depended largely on fish for food. There is abundant evidence that polygamy was common, and indeed it still occurs among the more wandering bands (Jones). Their wigwams were made of birch bark or of grass mats poles were first planted in the ground in a circle, the tops bent together and tied, and the bark or mats thrown over them, leaving a smoke hole at the top. They imagined that the shade, after the death of the body, followed a wide beaten path, leading toward the west, finally arriving in a country abounding in everything the Indian desires. It is a general belief among the northern Chippewa that the spirit often returns to visit the grave, so long as the body is not reduced to dust. Their creation myth is that common among the northern Algonquians. Like most other tribes they believe that a mysterious power dwells in all objects, animate and inanimate. Such objects are manitus, which are ever wakeful and quick to hear everything in the summer, but in winter, after snow falls, are in a torpid state. The Chippewa regard dreams as revelations, and some object which appears therein is often chosen as a tutelary deity. The Medewiwin, or grand medicine society 5 , was formerly a powerful organization of the Chippewa, which controlled the movements of the tribe and was a formidable obstacle to the introduction of Christianity.
When a Chippewa died it was customary to place the body in a grave facing west, often in a sitting posture, or to scoop a shallow cavity in the earth and deposit the body therein on its back or side, covering it with earth so as to form a small mound, over which boards, poles, or birch bark were placed. According to McKenney 6 , the Chippewa of Fond du Lac, Wis., practiced scaffold burial, the corpse being inclosed in a box., Mourning for a lost relative continued for a year, unless shortened by the meda or by certain exploits in war.
It is impossible to determine the past or present numbers of the Chippewa, as in former times only a small part of the tribe came in contact with the whites at any period, and they are now so mixed with other tribes in many quarters that no separate returns are given. The principal estimates are as follow: In 1764, about 25,000 1783 and 1794, about 15,000 1843, about 30,000 1851, about 28,000. It is probable that most of these estimates take no account of more remote lands. In 1884 there were in Dakota 914 in Minnesota, 5,885 in Wisconsin, 3,656 in Michigan, 3,500 returned separately, and 6,000 Chippewa and Ottawa, of whom perhaps one-third are Chippewa in Kansas, 76 Chippewa and Munsee. The entire number in the United States at this time was therefore about 16,000. In British America those of Ontario, including the Nipissing, numbered at the same time about 9,000, while in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories there were 17,129 Chippewa and Cree on reservations under the same agencies. The Chippewa now (1905) probably number 30,000 to 32,000-15,000 in British America and 14,144 in the United States, exclusive of about 3,000 in Michigan.
Around the end of the eighteenth century, prior to the advent of white traders in the area, the formerly woodland-oriented Chippewa, who had been in what is now Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan, moved out onto the Great Plains in pursuit of the bison and new beaver resources to hunt and trade. They successfully reoriented their culture to life on the plains, adopting horses, and developing the bison-hide tipi, the Red River cart, hard-soled footwear, and new ceremonial procedures. By around 1800, these Indians were hunting in the Turtle Mountain area of present-day North Dakota.  
For more than a century, as there was no international boundary, the Chippewa freely ranged in the areas that would become Manitoba, Canada and the United States including Minnesota, North Dakota and Montana, where they mingled with Cree and other tribes in the area.  Running battles with the Dakota over territorial disputes, were finally settled in 1858 with the signing of the Sweet Corn Treaty which described the 11,000,000 acres of the Chippewa domain and provided for reparations. The agreement was signed by Mattonwakan, Chief of the Yanktons and La Terre Qui Purle, Chief of the Sisseton Band, Chief Wilkie (Narbexxa) of the Chippewa and witnessed by many members of both tribes. 
By 1863, the Chippewa domain encompassed nearly one-third of the land in what would become North Dakota. White settlers, wanting to take advantage of the Homestead Act petitioned Congress to open up the Red River valley for agriculture and to make treaties with the native peoples. On 2 October 1863, at the Old Crossing of the Red Lake River in Minnesota, Red Lake chiefs Monsomo (Moose Dung), Kaw-was-ke-ne-kay (Broken Arm), May-dwa-gum-on-ind (He That Is Spoken To) and Leading Feather, along with chiefs of the Pembina Band, Ase-anse (Little Shell II) and Miscomukquah (Red Bear) met with Alexander Ramsey and Ashley C. Morrill, commissioners for the Government, to negotiate the Treaty of Old Crossing. The government secured all 11-million acres obtained in the Sweet Corn Treaty to open it up to settlement. The Chippewa signed the treaty under duress. 
The 1869–1870 Red River Rebellion was a series of events that started when the Hudson's Bay Company transferred the North-Western Territory trapping franchise to Canada. As a result, Louis Riel and his Métis followers seized Fort Garry on 2 November 1869, and attempted to establish a provisional government for the territory of Manitoba. When Canadian troops arrived, Riel fled  to the sanctuary of Montana, married, and became a US Citizen. In 1885, a group of Métis from Prince Albert, Canada asked for his assistance in settling grievances between the Métis and settlers. Riel drafted a petition, but fighting broke out, and he became wanted. Riel surrendered and was tried for treason. He was found guilty and hanged causing his followers to flee and seek refuge with the Turtle Mountain Chippewa. 
As the fur trade and buffalo hunting diminished available resources, the landless Turtle Mountain Chippewas, though recognized by the Government, found it difficult to ward off starvation. In an effort to provide them with a reservation, Congress approved purchase on 3 March 1873, of lands on the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota and attempted to relocate the tribe. The Chippewa refused to move and insisted on remaining in the Turtle Mountains.  In June, 1884, an agreement had set aside a reservation twelve miles by six miles which was being occupied by the Turtle Mountain Band, but by 1891, again the US wanted a land cession. 
In 1891, Agent Waugh of Fort Totten, convened a committee of 16 full bloods and 16 mixed bloods to take a census of the Chippewa and set boundaries for a new reservation. Little Shell III wanted to obtain a 30 square mile tract at Turtle Mountain, but when that proposal was rejected, he and his followers abandoned the meeting.  The McCumber Agreement was reached on 22 October 1892, which granted two townships within the traditional area ceding all other lands the Chippewa might possess in North Dakota.  The land granted was inadequate to meet the needs of granting allotments to all tribal members, so negotiations continued.  Finally in 1904, Article VI was added which provided that "All members of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewas who may be unable to secure land upon the reservation above ceded may take homesteads upon any vacant land belonging to the United States without charge, and shall continue to hold and be entitled to such share in all tribal funds, annuities, or other property, the same as if located on the reservations."  With this provision, the Chippewa agreed to the terms and the final agreement was ratified by Congress on 21 April 1904. 
In the decades after signing the McCumber agreement and the Great Depression the Chippewa adopted farming and gardening as a way of survival. They developed a Big Store in 1922 to sell goods and operated a creamery. They sold farm goods, chopped lumber, farm labor and medicinal herbs. Under the WPA, men gained training in construction jobs and women learned to sew and can goods. Congress approved the first charter of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa in 1932 and because of their successful endeavors and distrust of government programs, the tribe chose not to participate in the Indian Reorganization Act. 
The tribe filed numerous claims for a below market value settlement on the lands ceded in the McCumber Agreement. In 1934, Congress passed a law for the Indian Court of Claims to determine a settlement with the Chippewa, but it was vetoed by Franklin D. Roosevelt in May, 1934.  As second attempt was also vetoed in June, 1934.  Finally in 1946, with the establishment of the Indian Claims Commission, the tribe filed a petition in 1948.  On 9 June 1964 an Act established their claim and a method of distribution of the judgment. 
On 1 August 1953, the US Congress passed House Concurrent Resolution 108 which called for the immediate termination of the Flathead, Klamath, Menominee, Potawatomi, and Turtle Mountain Chippewa, as well as all tribes in the states of California, New York, Florida, and Texas. Termination of a tribe meant the immediate withdrawal of all federal aid, services, and protection, as well as the end of reservations.  Though termination legislation was introduced (Legislation 4. S. 2748, H.R. 7316. 83rd Congress. Termination of Federal Supervision over Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians),  the law was not implemented. In 1954, at the Congressional hearings for the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, tribal Chairman Patrick Gourneau and a delegation spoke in Washington, DC. They testified that the group was not financially prepared, had high unemployment and poverty, suffered from low education levels, and termination would be devastating to the tribe. Based on their testimony, the Chippewa were dropped from the tribes to be terminated. 
As the fur trade dwindled, many of the bands from the Red, Rainy, Leech and Sandy Lakes areas who had settled near the Post, drifted back into Minnesota and North Dakota. One band, the Mikinak-wastsha-anishinabe, established their community in the Turtle Mountains.Dept. of Public Instruction, p. 9 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDept._of_Public_Instruction (help) An 1849 letter from a Canadian priest, Father Belcourt, described the people of the Pembina Territory in 1849 as being from Red Lake, Reed Lake, Pembina and Turtle Mountain bands mixed with Métis, who far outnumbered the Chippewa. (Dept. of Public Instruction, p. 11 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDept._of_Public_Instruction (help) )
A court case in 2003 ruled that the Little Shell Band of Chippewa Indians (of Montana) is a separate tribe, given the Little Shell Band's independent development since the 1890s and its relocation to Montana to have a separate government.  The courts have recognized three independent units claiming the name Chippewa, and several unassociated members of that band.  This case refers to cases of the Indian Claims Commission and United States Court of Claims, which can no longer be found online at their original sources, as the cases are old. 
The Turtle Mountain Chippewa became the first tribe in the United States to ban hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on November 22, 2011, by unanimous vote  for a tribal resolution drafted by the grassroots tribal member group No Fracking Way Turtle Mountain Tribe.  The tribal resolution fracking ban was amended by the tribal council to direct the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to cancel oil and gas bids on 45,000 acres of tribal land that was scheduled to begin on December 14, 2011.  The BIA cancelled the bids on December 9, 2011.
The tribe has founded the Turtle Mountain Community College, one of numerous tribally controlled colleges in the United States.
The tribe has established online, short-term installment loans as a business to serve underbanked Americans. The business has brought new employment opportunities and has generated financial support for other tribal business ventures and social programs for the reservation.  The tribe established BlueChip Financial in 2012, which is based on the reservation in Belcourt, North Dakota and employs more than two dozen enrolled tribal members. BlueChip Financial is doing business under the Spotloan.com brand. The loans are only available online and the maximum loan value is $800, according to the company website. Since launch, the company has made 250,000 loans and operates only in the United States excluding selected states, as per listed on the website.
Other tribes participating in online short-term lending include the Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake,  the Otoe-Missouria Tribe,  the Chippewa Cree Tribe,  the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, the Fort Belknap Indian Community in Montana,  and the Santee Sioux Nation of Nebraska.  The Native American Financial Services Association (NAFSA) cites “Tribal online lending provides a critical economic lifeline for sovereign tribes in remote areas, whether or not they engage in tribal government gaming. While many out-of-the-way tribal communities have developed gaming facilities as a way to create jobs and generate essential government revenues, remote reservations and gaming properties have been more severely impacted by the economic downturn." 
There is high unemployment and poverty rates within the tribes and according to U.S. News & World Report and Pew Research “more than 1 in 4 native people live in poverty  and labor force participation rate – which measures the share of adults either working or looking for a job – is 61.6 percent, the lowest for all race and ethnicity groups.” 
Delvin Cree, a writer with The Tribal Independent, criticized tribal lending in an opinion piece published on Indianz.com in February 2012.  On the other hand, The Wall Street Journal and other publications have written about how tribal online lending programs have brought much-needed economic development to tribes without many other economic development opportunities. 
Chairperson Sherry Treppa of the Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake testified before the House Committee on Financial Services regarding tribal online small dollar lending programs becoming a vital part of many tribes’ economic development strategies, providing much-needed jobs and revenue. She also argued that attempts to regulate tribes engaging in online lending is an attack on state and tribal sovereignty. 
In addressing tribal sovereignty and the relationship with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), Saba Bazzazieh argues that “the bureau has disregarded tribal sovereignty since its creation, the problem has recently reached an all-time high.” Additionally, “the bureau has demonstrated a patent misunderstanding of what tribal sovereignty actually means in practice, including the fundamentally important issue of preemption of state law.”  
In 2016, Gavin Clarkson authored an important analysis on the law and economics of tribal online lending programs, finding that the programs were lawful, called “Online Sovereignty: The Law and Economics of Tribal Electronic Commerce.”  In this analysis Clarkson also identified ways in which lending has supported the tribal economy to include employment, infrastructure, education, healthcare, tribal services and social services. He notes that “many tribes participating in tribal lending have few other options in the wake of federal funding shortfalls and shrinking tribal budgets.”
Even before the outbreak of the Civil War, the secessionist government of South Carolina was concerned with the possibility of attack by sea in Georgetown County. Shortly after the December 20, 1860, passage of the Ordinance of Secession,  an aide-de-camp to governor Francis Pickens urged Lowcountry planters to "aid in the erection of Batteries to protect and defend the entrance of Winyah Bay and the Santee River". 
The area offered a tempting target to Union forces. Winyah Bay would furnish a sheltered anchorage large enough for the entire United States Navy of 1861. The city of Georgetown on the bay was the largest on the South Carolina coast north of Charleston.  Georgetown County produced nearly half of the rice grown in the United States, amounting to some 54 million pounds (24,000 tonnes) in 1860 Georgetown exported more rice than any other port in the world.   This production and shipping could be disrupted by gunboats moving up the Black, the Pee Dee, the Waccamaw, and the Sampit rivers, which flow into the bay and the two distributary channels of the Santee River, whose mouths lie just below the bay.  Curtailing rice production would not only damage the local economy, but would impair the Confederacy's ability to feed its armies. 
In May 1861, General P. G. T. Beauregard ordered the development of coastal defenses for South Carolina, including batteries situated on three islands flanking the mouth of Winyah Bay: North Island, South Island, and Cat Island. The Federal capture of Port Royal in November 1861 lent urgency to the construction and improvement of these works, which was done under Robert E. Lee, the newly appointed commander of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and East Florida, with Colonel Arthur Middleton Manigault in charge of the district that included Georgetown and Horry counties.  
The island fortifications were never tested against a major Union attack. However, they served a useful purpose in dealing with grounded ships, both Confederate and Federal in protecting the entrance to the bay and in maintaining Confederate possession of the islands. 
Matters changed in early 1862. In March of that year, Lee was recalled to Richmond as military advisor to President Jefferson Davis.   He was replaced by General John C. Pemberton,  who ordered the withdrawal of troops and artillery from the positions around Georgetown, apparently in order to concentrate his limited manpower on shorter defensive lines.  
Union naval forces were quick to take advantage of this new vulnerability. In May 1862, the gunboats USS Albatross and USS Norwich noted that the island forts were unoccupied. They landed troops to occupy North Island, which became the principal local Union base for much of the war and they destroyed the fortifications on South and Cat Islands.   They also sailed some 10 miles (16 km) up the Waccamaw River, where they raided a mill and carried off 80 slaves.  Settled on North Island, these freed slaves formed the nucleus of a colony of "contrabands" that grew to more than a thousand before being removed to Port Royal for fear of Confederate raids leading to their recapture or massacre. 
The Federal forces made no attempt to seize territory up the rivers, and their expeditions were limited by the draft of their vessels. Nevertheless, they conducted a number of raids in which they damaged facilities, seized rice, and released slaves and these raids severely disrupted the region's economy. Rice production in particular suffered, since it depended on a labor force of skilled slaves performing carefully timed tasks.  
Pemberton still refused to move artillery and men to the Georgetown area, maintaining that all of his resources were necessary for the protection of Charleston.  However, his superiors ordered him to construct new fortifications at Winyah Bay. Since the Union now controlled the islands, it was necessary to find sites further up the bay. On August 3, 1862, Pemberton visited the area and selected Mayrant's Bluff and Frazier's Point as the sites for the new batteries. 
Later in August 1862, Pemberton was promoted to lieutenant general and sent to the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, where he would eventually surrender Vicksburg. He was replaced in the Department of South Carolina and Georgia by Beauregard, who assumed command on September 24, 1862.    The new commander supported the fortification of Winyah Bay: on October 8, 1862, he assured Governor Pickens that he had ordered the construction of a battery of five or six pieces of artillery at Mayrant's Bluff  on November 10, he wrote Colonel James Chesnut, Jr. that the battery was "armed and completed", and that he had sent a new regiment of the State Reserves to General James H. Trapier, in command of the Georgetown District. 
Trapier was less than pleased with the troops and artillery that he had been given. The new regiment, he noted, arrived at the battery without arms and ammunition and as Reserves, would only be in service for 90 days, not enough time to make effective soldiers of them even had they been armed. He had also been given fairly light guns what he wanted was Columbiads, suitable for defending the battery and the bay against incursions by ironclads. 
Despite the paucity of men and weaponry, the new battery proved effective. On November 11, 1862, two Union gunboats entered Winyah Bay and began firing on the Mayrant's Bluff works. The Second South Carolina Artillery, which had set up nine guns in the fortification, responded and within a few minutes, the Federal vessels were forced to retire. 
In February 1863, Trapier reported that the Mayrant's Bluff fortification, now named Battery White, was occupied by only 53 men and nine guns.  Even this small force sufficed to stop Federal incursions up the rivers of Winyah Bay. However, rice production in the Georgetown area did not recover: the raids had destroyed too much of the physical plant, carried off too many of the slaves, and created too much uncertainty for planters to return to anything near full production. 
The battery continued to lose manpower, despite Trapier's ongoing calls for more troops and guns.  In October 1864, a body of eleven deserters from the Confederate German Artillery reached the gunboat USS Potomska they reported that there was great discontent among the troops, and that many would desert were they not so strongly guarded. They also reported that there were ten guns at the battery the captain of Potomska concluded that the bay was too well defended for him to render aid to prospective deserters.  
In November 1864, Trapier was ordered to bring most of his forces to Mount Pleasant, just north of Charleston. Only a company of the German Artillery was left to defend the Georgetown district. By the end of January 1865, only a small crew commanded by a lieutenant remained at Battery White. 
In January and early February 1865, Union forces under General William Tecumseh Sherman moved northward from Georgia into South Carolina. On February 2 and 3, they defeated a Confederate force in the Battle of Rivers' Bridge, clearing their pathway into the state. After a feint at Charleston, they marched to Columbia, which they entered on February 17 on the same day, Charleston was evacuated, and on the 18th, it was surrendered.  
From Charleston, Union naval forces under Admiral John A. Dahlgren moved up the coast to Georgetown, which Dahlgren thought might be a useful point of communication with Sherman's land forces.  On February 23, deserters told the captain of the gunboat USS Mingoe that Battery White had been or would soon be evacuated. Mingoe fired four rounds into the battery. When no response was made, a party was sent ashore they found the battery abandoned and its guns spiked.   The sloop-of-war USS Pawnee and the gunboat USS Nipsic continued up the bay and landed a party of Marines to take possession of Georgetown   the intendant and wardens of the city formally surrendered it on February 25. 
Soon thereafter, Dahlgren inspected the battery, and was impressed. The fortification, he wrote, was well situated and designed, laid out to defend against both shipborne bombardment and attack by landing parties. Eleven guns bore on the channel: two 10-inch (254 mm) Columbiads, three banded rifled 32-pounders, four smoothbore 24-pounders, and two banded rifled 12-pounders. A 6-pound smoothbore flanked the ditch. The rear was defended by a "formidable" rampart and ditch, with a 24-pound smoothbore at either end in the fort were numerous traverses and magazines. The approach along the beach to the battery's right flank was covered by a 24-pound and a 12-pound smoothbore. "If the works had been sufficiently manned", wrote Dahlgren, "it would have required good troops to take the work." 
Sinking of USS Harvest Moon Edit
By the fall of 1864, the Union fleet had effectively closed Winyah Bay to blockade runners. Accordingly, the Confederate command had elected to lay mines, at the time known as "torpedoes", in the bay. Eighteen mines had been constructed in Georgetown by Captain Thomas West Daggett and Stephen W. Rouquie and placed strategically in the bay.   
As early as January 1865, Union sympathizers in Georgetown had warned Dahlgren's forces about the existence of mines in the channel.  While approaching Battery White, Mingoe had sent its boats out to sweep for such devices.  However, their efforts may have been perfunctory: according to Dahlgren's report, ". so much has been said in ridicule of torpedoes that very little precautions are deemed necessary, and if resorted to are probably taken with less care than if due weight was attached to the existence of these mischievous things." 
On the morning of March 1, 1865, Dahlgren's flagship, the side-wheel steamer USS Harvest Moon, sailed from Georgetown toward Battery White, which Dahlgren intended to inspect. En route, the vessel struck one of Daggett and Rouquie's mines, which blew a large hole in it, killing one sailor the boat quickly sank in two and a half fathoms of water.   
For over a century after the Civil War, the grounds on which Battery White stood were part of the Belle Isle Plantation. During the late 19th century, extensive landscaping was undertaken on the plantation. The United Daughters of the Confederacy erected a memorial stone on the site in 1929. In about 1946, the plantation gardens, including the battery, were opened to the public, and remained thus until 1974.  
In the 1970s, the plantation was developed as a condominium complex. Portions of the 100-acre (40 ha) complex of fortifications were lost to construction. However, the owners elected to preserve Battery White itself. In 1977, a 3-acre (1.2 ha) area encompassing the battery was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places.  In 2008, the site was re-opened to the public. 
The battery's earthworks are for the most part well preserved. The powder magazines have deteriorated, owing to collapse of the earth mounds following decay of their wooden interior shoring. The two Columbiads have been re-mounted and once again point out over Winyah Bay. 
Three of the battery's guns have been placed in Georgetown. A 24-pound gun has been mounted in front of the National Guard Armory,  and two cannon are displayed in Constitution Park on the Georgetown waterfront. 
Harvest Moon was never salvaged, and has gradually sunk deeper into the mud of the bay. In the mid-1960s, the top deck lay under an estimated six feet (1.8 m) of mud.  A Georgetown group attempted to salvage and restore the vessel as a tourist attraction, and in 1964 the U.S. Navy formally abandoned it, rendering it eligible for private salvage but the attempt failed for lack of funds.  As of 2011, the ship's boiler stack was still visible at low tide. 
- ^ Obtained by entering "Battery White" in "Resource Name" search field at NPS Focus. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^"Location".Battery White website. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^"A Brief History of South Carolina".Archived November 30, 2011, at the Wayback MachineSouth Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 2011-09-15. Archived at Wayback Machine, 2011-11-30.
- ^ Charles Alston, aide-de-camp to Pickens December 30, 1860. Quoted in George C. Rogers, Jr., The History of Georgetown County, South Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 1970 quote reproduced at "Battery White Identified as a Strategic Location", Battery White website. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ ab Simmons (2009), p. 11.
- ^"History of Georgetown".Archived 2011-09-15 at the Wayback MachineCity of Georgetown website.Archived 2011-09-15 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ ab Power, J. Tracy, and Sherry Piland. "National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form: Georgetown County Rice Culture, c. 1750 – c. 1910".South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 46–47.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 13–14.
- ^"The War for Southern Independence in South Carolina". Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Simmons (2009), p. 18.
- ^"Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870)".Home of the American Civil War. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^"American Civil War March 1862". Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ ab"John Clifford Pemberton (1814–1881)".Home of the American Civil War. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 103–04.
- ^ Ballard, Michael B. Pemberton: The General who Lost Vicksburg. University Press of Mississippi, 1991. pp. 98–99.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 19–25.
- ^ The Albatross is described as a "378-ton (burden) wooden screw gunboat" at "USS Albatross (1861–1865)". The Norwich is described as a "431-ton (burden) gunboat" at "USS Norwich (1861–1865)". Both websites at Naval History and Heritage Command both retrieved 2014-04-16.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 105–06.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 19–20.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 54–60.
- ^ Pemberton John C., letter to James Chesnut, Jr., July 26, 1862 retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ Simmons (2009), p. 56.
- ^ Cutler, Harry Gardner. History of South Carolina, vol. 2, pp. 727–30. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^"Department of South Carolina and Georgia".Archived February 6, 2012, at the Wayback MachineOrganization of the Confederate Armies. Retrieved 2011-09-16. Archived at Wayback Machine, 2012-02-06.
- ^ P. G. T. Beauregard to Francis Pickens, October 8, 1862 quoted in Simmons, p. 107.
- ^ P. G. T. Beauregard to James Chesnut, Jr., November 10, 1862 quoted in Alfred Roman, The military operations of General Beauregard in the war between the states, 1861 to 1865, chapter 28. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 109–110.
- ^ ab Simmons (2009), p. 60.
- ^ abcde McNulty, Kappy, and Donald R. Sutherland. "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form: Battery White."South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- ^ Report of Lieutenant R. P. Swann, commander of the USS Potomska October 5, 1864. In Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, Government Printing Office, 1903, pp. 7–8. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ The Potomska is listed as a "ScGbt" (screw gunboat) at "Potomska", entry in Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Naval History and Heritage Command, retrieved 2014-04-16.
- ^ Simmons (2009), p. 116.
- ^ Power, J. Tracy. "Civil War in South Carolina 1861–65".Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback MachineSouth Carolina's Civil War Sesquicentennial.Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^"The Civil War: How Drayton Hall Survived".Archived 2012-03-20 at the Wayback MachineDrayton Hall website. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ ab Report by Admiral J. A. Dahlgren to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles February 28, 1865. In Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, Government Printing Office, 1903, pp. 273–74. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ ab Report of Commander J. Blakeley Creighton, captain of USS Mingoe February 24, 1865. In Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, Government Printing Office, 1903, p. 276. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ The Mingoe is described as a "side-wheel steam gunboat" at Mingoe, entry in Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Naval History and Heritage Command, retrieved 2014-04-16.
- ^ The Pawnee is listed as "ScSlp" (screw sloop-of-war) at Pawnee the Nipsic is described as a "gunboat" at Nipsic.Archived 2014-04-16 at the Wayback Machine Both entries in Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, at Naval History and Heritage Command both retrieved 2014-04-16.
- ^ Letter of surrender from R. O. Bush, intendant, and wardens of Georgetown, South Carolina February 25, 1865. In Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, Government Printing Office, 1903, p. 275. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ Report by Admiral J. A. Dahlgren to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles February 28, 1865. In Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, Government Printing Office, 1903, pp. 277–78. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 146–48.
- ^ Lewis, Catherine H. "Thomas West Daggett".Independent Republic Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3 (Summer 1993), p. 19. Reproduced at Horry County Historical Society website. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ "Sinking of the USS Harvest Moon", historical marker text reproduced at "SC Historical Roadside Markers – Florence to Hampton Counties". Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- ^ ab Simmons (2009), p. 148.
- ^ ab Report by Admiral J. A. Dahlgren to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles March 1, 1865. In Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, Government Printing Office, 1903, pp. 282–83. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ The Harvest Moon is described as a "SwStr" (side-wheel steamer) at Harvest Moon, entry in Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Naval History and Heritage Command, retrieved 2014-04-16.
- ^"Memorial stone at Battery White".Battery White website. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^"Battery White is now open to the public again".Battery White website. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^"1st Battalion 178th Field Artillery".The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^"These Two Cannons"The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ Simmons (2009), pp. 150–51.
- ^"Logbook of the U.S.S. Harvest Moon".U.S.S. Harvest Moon. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- ^ Holtcamp, Amy. "The Harvest Moon: Georgetown’s sunken treasure".Archived 2014-01-02 at the Wayback MachineSouth Carolina: Made For Vacation. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
Simmons, Rick (2009). Defending South Carolina's Coast: The Civil War from Georgetown to Little River. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press.
The Cape Santiago Lighthouse was among the lighthouses constructed by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines from 1846 to 1896 as part of the Plan General de Alumbrado de Maritimo de las Costas del Archipelago de Filipino (Masterplan for the Lighting of the Maritime Coasts of the Philippine Archipelago), the goal of which was to install 55 lighthouses all over the archipelago, including its remotest corners. 
In 1887, Spanish engineer Magin Pers y Pers, who also designed the lighthouses at Cape Bojeador and Cape Engaño, proposed the construction of a lighthouse in Cape Santiago after conducting a site evaluation.   Don Santiago Zobel, the rich landowner of Hacienda Bigaa in Calatagan, donated the one-hectare property where the lighthouse was constructed.  
Construction company Aldecoa y Compania constructed the lighthouse based on a design by Spanish engineer Guillermo Brockman.  Made of brick and lime cement, the red round structure is 15.5 metres (51 ft) tall and was modeled after Europe's medieval castles. A lighthouse keeper's house was also built beside the lighthouse tower where the keeper and his or her family can take up residence. The lighthouse was inaugurated and lit on December 15, 1890. 
After the American annexation of the Philippines in 1898, the management of the Spanish-built lighthouses in the country fell into American hands. From 1900 to 1902 — the height of the Philippine–American War — the American gunboat USS Villalobos, a former Spanish gunboat captured after the American annexation of the Philippines, guarded the lighthouse. The gunboat regularly patrolled the area around the lighthouse, Malabrigo Point and Cabra Island from its base in Cavite, maintaining a communication link with the Marines guarding lighthouses and keeping a sharp lookout for smuggling and trafficking of supplies to Filipino revolutionaries. 
During World War II, the lighthouse suffered minor damage after American warplanes strafed a Japanese garrison in the area.  Over the succeeding years, the lighthouse deteriorated due to neglect and its original light source went missing. In 1980, the Japanese government, through the Japan International Cooperation Agency, donated a light bulb to replace the missing light source. The bulb has since been replaced with a modern, solar-powered lens that the Philippine Coast Guard (PCG) has recently installed.  
In 1990, the PCG renovated the abandoned lighthouse keeper's house and repurposed it as an inn for tourists. It renovated structure was unveiled on December 15, 1990 — the centenary of the lighthouse's inauguration. On April 18, 1995, the PCG, then under Commodore Arturo Capada, signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with former Batangas Governor and Resort Association of the Philippines Inc. (RAPI) president Jose Antonio Leviste to develop Cape Santiago into a tourism site. RAPI reclaimed around 9,000 square metres (97,000 sq ft) of sea along the shoreline of the lighthouse, an action that was not part of the MOU, which only authorized the improvement of the existing building and development of the surrounding land area. The development has since been discontinued. 
In October 2007, the Philippine Coast Guard Auxiliary proposed to adopt and restore the lighthouse as its headquarters. 
On March 12, 2018, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines installed a historical marker on the site, designating its status a National Historical Landmark. 
Among the largest natural inland lakes in the State of Ohio, Chippewa Lake was created some 14,000 years ago by the melting of massive glacial ice sheets as they retreated north. Chippewa Lake has a long history of human habitation going back thousands of years when Native Americans visited the fertile wetlands and lakeshores to hunt and trade. In recent history, the lake served as a playground for generations of visitors to storied Chippewa Lake Amusement Park, which closed its doors in 1978 after 100 years. The park district acquired the old amusement park property in June 2020. Read about this exciting aquisition HERE.
Medina County Park District purchased open land on the west side of the lake over a period of years. In 2007, the park district acquired the lake, itself. Since then, the park district has opened Krabill Shelter, a reservable enclosed shelter off Ballash Road. Today, the lake is open to the public, once again, with a public boat launch off Westfield Landing Road.
Utilizing available grants and mitigation banking, the park district has been able to fund the restoration of streams and wetlands north of the lake, which will improve water quality and enhance habitat for wildlife.Together, these restoration projects help preserve this special natural resource for all to enjoy for generations to come.
The Save the Lake Coalition, a citizen-led group of volunteers, has partnered with Friends of Medina County Parks to raise funds to help study and manage harmful algal blooms on Chippewa Lake. Click HERE to visit the Save the Lake Coalition website. Contributions to this effort can be made by check payable to Friends of Medina County Parks (with "Save the Lake" in the memo), or online at bitly.com/Save-the-Lake.
Chippewa Lake/Krabill Lodge Activities/Amenities
Anyone 16 years or older must possess a valid fishing license while fishing at Chippewa Lake and Chippewa Inlet.
Warning Flag System in Place at Chippewa Lake
The warning flag system alerts boaters and swimmers to water conditions at Chippewa Lake due to harmful algal blooms or other safety concerns.
The flags -- which are posted on a flagpole at the public boat ramp on the southwest corner of the lake and be visible from other locations around the lake -- are color coded. Color keys posted at the boat ramp, public beaches, and private boat launch areas explain what each flag means:
KRABILL LODGE INFORMATION
Reservations can be made up to one year in advance.
- Hours: 9 a.m. to 10 p.m.
- Handicap accessible
- Alcohol permitted inside building only
- Size: Main room 29&rsquo x 49&rsquo, tiled
Small room 14.5&rsquo x 17&rsquo, carpeted
- Tables: Eight 6&rsquo and two 5&rsquo
- Chairs: 52
- Grills: One 24&rdquo x 36&rdquo
- Benches: None
- Serving shelves: Buffet 2.5&rsquo x 6&rsquo
- Misc.: Full kitchen (refrigerator, stove/oven, dishwasher, microwave)
- Three restrooms (one with ADA access)
- Gas fireplace
- 16&rsquo x 20&rsquo deck with four 6&rsquo picnic tables
- ADA access
- Outdoor outlets
- Capacity: 48 people
- $50 refundable key/cleaning deposit
- Internet hot-spot access available upon request. First-come, first-serve at a cost of $25.
Items subject to change call for verification
- Resident: $175/weekend day or holiday $125/weekday
- Non-Resident: $225/weekend day or holiday $175/weekdays
- Friends of the Parks: Members receive a one-time per year discount. The discount depends on the membership level. Non-profit organizations - discount available.