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William Barbour

William Barbour


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William Barbour was born in Monmouth County, New Jersey, on 31st July, 1888. He studied at Princeton University and was amateur heavyweight boxing champion of the United States (1910-1911).

A member a member of the Republican Party, Barbour served as mayor of Rumson (1923-28) before being elected to the Senate in December 1931.

On 8th February, 1934, Gerald Nye submitted a Senate Resolution calling for an investigation of the munitions industry by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee under Key Pittman of Nevada. Pittman disliked the idea and the resolution was referred to the Military Affairs Committee. It was eventually combined with one introduced earlier by Arthur H. Vandenberg.

The Military Affairs Committee accepted the proposal and as well as Nye and Vandenberg, the Munitions Investigating Committee included Barbour, James P. Pope of Idaho, Joel B. Clark of Missouri, Homer T. Bone of Washington, and Walter F. George of Georgia. John T. Flynn, a writer with the New Republic magazine, was appointed as an advisor and Alger Hiss as the committee's legal assistant.

Public hearings before the Munitions Investigating Committee began on 4th September, 1934. In the reports published by the committee it was claimed that there was a strong link between the American government's decision to enter the First World War and the lobbying of the the munitions industry. The committee was also highly critical of the nation's bankers. In a speech in 1936 Nye argued that "the record of facts makes it altogether fair to say that these bankers were in the heart and center of a system that made our going to war inevitable".

Barbour was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1936 but returned to the Senate in 1940. William Barbour died in Washington on 22nd November, 1943.

It would not be fair to say that the House of Morgan took us to war to save their investment in the Allies, but the record of facts makes it altogether fair to say that these bankers were in the heart and center of a system that made our going to war inevitable. We started in 1914 with a neutrality policy which permitted the sale of arms and munitions to belligerents, but which forbad loans to belligerents. Then, in the name of our own business welfare. President Wilson permitted the policy to be stretched to the extent of permitting the house of Morgan to supply the credit needs of the Allies. After this error of neutrality, the road to war was paved and greased for us.

Almost without exception, the American munitions companies investigated have at times resorted to such unusual approaches, questionable favors and commissions, and methods of 'doing the needful' as to constitute, in effect,

a form of bribery of foreign governmental officials or of their close friends in order to secure business. These business methods carried within themselves the seeds of disturbance to the peace and stability of those nations in which they

take place.

While the evidence before this committee does not show that wars have been started solely because of the activities of munitions makers and their agents, it is also true that wars rarely have one single cause, and the committee finds it to be against the peace of the world for selfishly interested organizations to be left free to goad and frighten nations into military activity.

The Committee wishes to point out most definitely that its study of events resulting from the then existing neutrality legislation, or the lack of it, is in no way a criticism, direct or implied, of the sincere devotion of the then President, Woodrow Wilson, to the high causes of peace and democracy. Like other leaders in government, business and finance, he had watched the growth of militarism in the pre-war years. Militarism meant the alliance of the military with powerful economic groups to secure appropriations on the one hand for a constantly increasing military and naval establishment, and on the other hand, the constant threat of the use of that swollen military establishment in behalf of the economic interests at home and abroad of the industrialists supporting it. President Wilson was personally impelled by the highest motives and the most profound convictions as to the justice of the cause of our country and was devoted to peace. He was caught up in a situation created largely by the profit-making interests in the United States, and such interests spread to nearly everybody in the country. It seemed necessary to the prosperity of our people that their markets in Europe remain unimpaired. President Wilson, himself, stated that he realized that the economic rivalries of European nations had played their part in bringing on the war in 1914.

Loans extended to the Allies in 1915 and 1916, led to a very considerable war boom and inflation. This boom extended beyond munitions to auxiliary supplies and equipment as well as to agricultural products. The nature of such a war-boom inflation is that, like all inflations, an administration is almost powerless to check it, once the movement is well started. Our foreign policy then is seriously affected by it, even to the extent of making impossible the alteration of our foreign policy in such a way as to protect our neutral rights.

No member of the Munitions Committee to my knowledge has ever contended that it was munitions makers who took us to war. But that committee and its members have said again and again, that it was war trade and the war boom, shared in by many more than munitions makers, that played the primary part in moving the United States into a war.


William Warren Barbour, the third of four brothers, was born in 1888 to Colonel William Barbour and his wife, Julia Adelaide Sprague, in Monmouth Beach, Monmouth County, New Jersey. His eldest brother, Thomas Barbour, a general naturalist and herpetologist, served as director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. His father, Colonel William Barbour, was founder and president of the Linen Thread Company, Inc., a thread manufacturing enterprise having much business on both sides of the Atlantic. [1]

William Warren Barbour attended the public schools, but ultimately graduated from the Browning School, New York City in 1906. He also entered Princeton University but left after one semester to join The Linen Thread Company, of which his father was president. William Warren Barbour became president of the company in 1917 when his father, "The Colonel", died. [2]

As a teenager, Barbour suffered from tuberculosis, which he overcame by intensive exercise and participation in sports. These athletic pursuits included boxing, which eventually led to his becoming amateur heavyweight boxing champion of the United States in 1910, when he defeated Joseph Burke, and Canada in 1911. [3]

Around this time, both Theodore Roosevelt and "Gentleman Jim" Corbett wanted him to take up the mantle of "the great white hope" and fight Jack Johnson, the reigning professional heavyweight champion. [4] While the idea apparently appealed to Barbour and his father, his mother was adamantly opposed and firmly quashed the plan. While Barbour never continued with a professional boxing career, he did serve as timekeeper for the Jack Dempsey–Jess Willard fight in 1919. [5]

Militarily, he served as a member of the New York National Guard for ten years, being stationed on the Mexican border in 1916, and attaining the rank of captain. In 1921, he married Elysabeth Cochran Carrere, a union which gave rise to three children and ten grandchildren. [6] Soon after his marriage, Barbour entered the political arena, serving as a member of the Rumson Borough Council in 1922 and as mayor of Rumson from 1923–1928.

By 1930, Barbour and his family took their house in Locust Point, Monmouth County, N.J., as their official residence, while also maintaining a home in New York City. Barbour continued his work in various industrial enterprises, primarily including the family thread manufacturing business, of which he was president. On December 1, 1931, New Jersey Governor Morgan F. Larson appointed Barbour, a Republican, to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy created by the death of Dwight W. Morrow.

The appointment was confirmed the following year when he was narrowly elected to the U.S. Senate on November 8, 1932, with 49% of the vote, in a year when more than half of the Republican incumbents running for the Senate were defeated when Franklin Roosevelt and the Democratic Party won in a landslide. He served in the Senate until January 3, 1937. After completing Morrow's unfinished term, Barbour was unsuccessful in his 1936 reelection bid. For the next two years, he resumed his former pursuits, including service as a member of the New Jersey unemployment compensation commission in 1937. Barbour regained his Senate seat on November 8, 1938, when he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of A. Harry Moore. Popularly elected to the office in 1940 after completing Moore's term, he served as U.S. Senator from New Jersey until his death in 1943.

The plight of victims of Nazi genocide stirred Barbour deeply. In April 1943, along with many other Congressmen and Senators, Barbour may have attended a performance of We Will Never Die, a pageant written by Ben Hecht and produced by the Bergson Group to commemorate two million European Jews who had already been murdered. [7] In the fall of 1943, he was one of a small group of senators and congressmen who, together with the vice president, met with 400 rabbis who marched with the Bergson Group in Washington in 1943, shortly before Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement. It was hoped their march would encourage the United States government to take a formal stand against the Holocaust. While President Franklin D. Roosevelt did not meet with the rabbis, Senator Barbour, along with a handful of Congressional colleagues, met them on the steps of the United States Capitol and expressed his commitment to their cause. [8]

On October 14, 1943, [9] barely a week after meeting with the rabbis, and despite strong public and political opinion against allowing further immigration to the United States, Barbour introduced a bill that would have permitted as many as 100,000 victims of the Holocaust "who are now being persecuted either because of racial or religious belief" to come to America and to remain in the United States as visitors for the duration of the war. [10] This would have been a significant change from the existing policy limiting immigration to only 2% of the number of their countrymen who had been in the United States as of the 1890 Census. [8]

Barbour's death just a few weeks later in November 1943, prevented him from working toward passage of the bill. His support of the rabbis, however, and his subsequent actions in the Senate did much to increase political and public awareness of and compassion for the victims of the Nazi genocide. [8]


William Barbour - History

Barbour County, Alabama

History of Eufaula

HISTORY OF EUFAULA, ALABAMA,
THE BLUFF CITY OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE .

Atlanta, Georgia Franklin Steam Printing House-Jas. P. Harrison & Co., Printers. 1875

This little volume is offered to the public, not as a work of literary merit, but simply as a true and plain statement of facts, connected with the origin, vicissitudes and developments of this city, of which it is a faithful history. And as showing its present status in regard to business, social advantages, pleasant surroundings, and its future prospects.

Hoping, that while some may be interested with the narrative, others may be induced to cast their lot with us: and like the aborigines, who, when they came to this State, and saw for themselves its real loveliness and beauty, exclaimed: "Alabama! Here we rest."

AUTHOR.
Eufaula, Sept. 1, 1875.

Page 3
On the west bank of the Chattahoochee river rises a bluff, one hundred and fifty fee above low water mark, and from its summit, looking south, you see the waters flowing towards Apalachicola Bay, where they empty into the Gulf of Mexico, two hundred and five miles distant, and where the city of Apalachicola is situated.

As you look towards the east you behold the river running towards you (as you are standing on the bank of the stream where it makes a sudden turn from east to south.) Seventy-five miles north of this point is the head of navigation, where is situated the beautiful city of Columbus, Georgia. On the other side of the river is the State of Georgia, the stream forming the boundary between it and the State of Alabama. The country over which your eye wanders is a magnificent savannah of hundreds of acres, stretching far to the east and southeast.

Names of Indian Tribes and Their Homes&mdash1825.

Here on this bluff dwelt several tribes of Indians. One tribe was known as the "Actahoochees" one as the "Uchees," and one as the "Eufaulas," and from the last named tribe the town took its name. Each tribe spoke a different dialect. These tribes of Indians practiced polygamy, and had little or no religion. They had many rogues among them, but their chiefs were honest and honorable men. The name of the principal chief was "Tustenuggee" there was, also, Paddy Carr, Steadman, and Jim Henr, who were noted men.

The United States Government had defined the boundaries of the Indian territory, and this was known as the

Creek Nation. Here the General Government guaranteed them the enjoyment and peaceful possession of their original rights. But they were not thus to be let alone, for the white man came among them and induced them, by fair promises, to allow them to farm the lands. It was not long before these white men began to trespass on the possessions of the Indians, forcing them even, in many instances, to leave some of their clearings and it was only a short time before a bitter feeling sprang up between them.

The Intruder's War&mdash1827.

The Indians felt that the white man was an intruder upon them, and by the advice of some few white men, who were in sympathy with the Indians, an appeal was made to the General Government, at Washington, for their protection and redress. Soon, United States troops were sent out who at once ordered the white people out of the nation, and destroyed their growing crops, and burned a house belonging to a white man named Pugh this occurred in the month of July, 1827, and was known as the "Intruders War."

The White People Return to the Nation.

The white people did not go far off, but kept out of the
way of the troops and as soon as the treaty was ar-
ranged, by which the government allowed the white men
to buy claims from the Indians, they all came back, and
at once perfected such arrangements as best suited them.

The First White Man that Built a House.

The first white settler that built a house here was Carson Winslett and soon after, Mr. F. W. Pugh, Moses Packer, Aaron Packer, Durham Lee, Lochlin McLean, James Gorman, Churchill Gorman, and others, moved in.

The First Store.

The first store was set up by a man named--Allen, who had, as a partner, Hon. William Irwin, who furnished

Page 5
the capital to trade on, and who lived in Henry county, below, on the river.

The Name of the Town Changed to Irwinton.

The Indian name of the village was changed, and the name of Irwinton was given to the place, in honor of Hon. Wm. Irwin, who was a State Senator, representing Henry and Pike counties, in consequence of using his influence in the Legislature to make the place a landing for steamboats for the benefit of the people of this section of country.

Public Sale of Land and Town Lots.

That portion of the town, which is now east of Orange street, was bought by a company from Columbus, Georgia. Hon. Alfred Iverson was one of the company. The lands lying west of Orange street were bought by General William Wellborn, Seth Love, John M. Moore and Alexander Robertson. Soon after, Wellborn & Co. bought lands they had a few blocks run off into lots and put up at public sale, and what is now known as Bray & Bros, corner, was bid off to Green Beauchamp and B. V. Iverson, of Columbus. The next lot sold was what is now occupied by John McNab's bank, and was bought by Mr. Wm. A. McKenzie. Other sales occurred, but to parties whose names are now forgotten.

The Country Full of Indians Yet&mdash1835.

Thus began the settlement of Irwinton and in the year 1835 Irwinton was yet a very small village, having but a few white inhabitants. The surrounding country was full of Indians, who lived in all their aboriginal simplicity, hunting game, of which there was an abundance also, fishing, making baskets of reeds, and also blow guns of the same material.

Indian Blow Guns.

These were made of reeds about half an inch or more in diameter, and about five or six feet in length the joints of the reed were carefully bored out, the whole interior of

Page 6
the gun was, by some ingenious process, made perfectly smooth and straight as a line. An arrow was then constructed of hard pine, and twisted like an augur, one end was very sharply pointed, and the other end was feathered with thistle down and made round, so that it would exactly fill the bore of the gun and offer as little resistance as possible. The arrow being placed in the gun, and then applying the gun to the mouth and giving a smart, quick, blow, they could, with the greatest precision, kill a bird or squirrel in the loftiest tree. They also made various articles of bead work and buckskin for hunting pouches, and moccasins for their feet.

Morals and Religion of the Indian.

In morals they were as degraded as it is possible to conceive, and in their religious beliefs not much better. They, however, believed in some Great Spirit, but they had no forms of worship.

The Green Corn Dance and the Black Drink.

The only thing approaching to a religious rite was their Green Corn Dance and taking the Black Drink, which occurred at different periods of the year, and which events were looked for with much interest and anxiety, and required a great amount of preparation, both as to the ground upon which it should be executed, and also of the persons who were to engage in them.

The Green Corn Dance took place as soon as the corn was ripe enough to eat&mdashwhen it was plucked and brought to the ground and cooked in large pots until it was very soft, and when done was called " sofkee" The men would all gather around and eat it with a wooden spoon&mdashall using the same spoon. The chief presided over the festivities, sitting in the center of a circle, and after the Indians had partaken of the sofkee, they would throw off their gown, and were then demi-nude they then took a small board about three inches wide and about four inches long, which was thickly set with iron points, and with this

instrument would rake and tear the flesh on their arms, legs and breasts, and sometimes even their faces, and then in that bloody plight they would, in wild fury and gesticulating, and with songs, dance around the ground. Every male engaged in this ceremony, and even boys of sixteen and seventeen years of age. These orgies lasted three and four days.

Another ceremony was, taking the Black Drink, which was celebrated in the spring of the year, the same as the Green Corn Dance instead of tearing the flesh, they partook of the nauseating drink, which was composed of some peculiar roots and herbs, making a decoction as black as ink, and which vomited them most terribly, and, for a short time, made them very sick.

The Indian, Unprincipled and Not Brave.

In principle they were treacherous and untrustworthy, and not so brave as cunning, and given to stratagem. The town during the day was always overrun with these dusky red men of the forest, lying around idly passing their time away. When employed by the white men (as sometimes they were) in helping cultivate patches of corn, they proved good workers, but had to be constantly watched to prevent them from stealing, and also from running away. Those who came to town were usually accompanied by their squaws, who brought with them the results of their own industries, and sold them to the traders for calico and bell buttons.

Bell Buttons and Bad Habits.

These were a small button about the size of a hazel nut or filbert, and made like a sleigh bell they bought these to sew on their garments, which were decorated with hundreds of them, and when the wearer was in motion, gave a pleasing jingling sound, which they very greatly admired. Oftimes, however, most of their money was spent for mean whisky&mdashand when night come on, and they were ready to go home, they left town in companies

one sober one holding and leading a drunken one, all of them singing some of their rude airs, which were generally more boisterous than musical.

Hotels, Stores and Dwellings of Logs.

There were but few stores in the town, and not many dwellings, all of them were constructed of rough logs. Up to the winter of 1834 there was not a frame building in the place. There were two public houses one of them was built of hewed logs, and was called the crack hotel of the village&mdashthe landlord's name was Slatter. The other house, a less pretentious one, was constructed of rough round logs, and was known as Morgan's hotel.

Chaotic State of Society.

Many were the adventurers who visited the village, and many settled themselves here. This naturally brought all kinds of people together, and many of them not of the best character hence, lawlessness, drunkenness and immorality ruled the hour.

Bowie Knives, Pistols and Fighting.

A great many of the male inhabitants carried pistols and bowie knives, made almost imperative for self-protection, and upon almost any provication were ready to make free use of them. Many were the fights and bloody rencounters that were witnessed on the streets of Irwinton. But there were a few good men who, true to every manly instinct, with courage undaunted, stood up like polished "marble shafts" amid all the moral corruption that surrounded them, and by their efforts and examples (and as population increased) open wickedness was toned down bad men and their evil practices began to be overcome and order took the place of confusion crime was arrested and punished by the strong arm of law&mdashthen Irwinton began her career of progress.

The First Saw Mill&mdash1835.

It was now about the summer of ཟ when a saw mill

was erected on the Chewalla creek, about one mile from town, on the Columbus road facilities were, thereby, secured for building better houses, which was duly improved. The mill was owned by Mr. John M. Moore.

New Buildings Being Built.

Several new store houses were built, and also a two-story hotel, which was called the Irwinton Hotel, and kept by a Mr. Birch. Next door to this building was the then imposing two-story building, owned and occupied by Capt. John M. Moore and Mr. J. G. L. Martin, as a drinking and eating establishment the upper rooms being used as a billiard saloon and ballroom, and known as "Social Hall." It was an immensely popular resort.

In those days the dance was the only pastime in which ladies and gentlemen indulged together, so the building of Social Hall was hailed with delight by the ladies, of whom there were a good many in the town and surrounding country.

The gentlemen, when to themselves, very freely patronized the gaming table and the horse races the latter was held in the streets of the town, and inasmuch as the clearing did not extend far, the principal street had to be used, and all business was generally suspended to witness the races. But a year or two after this a splendid course was constructed, about four miles from town, at a cost of ten thousand dollars, and the turf was liberally patronized for many years, but finally neglected, and now, not a vestige of it remains.

Some Few Men Trying to Make Money.

While some were indulging in pleasure and dissipation, many others were laying the foundation of their fortune and independence, and helping to develope the rich and fertile land surrounding Irwinton.

Cultivation of Cotton&mdash1835.

The cultivation of the cotton plant was already claiming

Page 10
considerable attention, and a few bales, packed in round bags from six to eight feet long, and tied at the four corners in knots, for convenience of handling, weighing about three hundred and fifty pounds, were received at Irwinton, as this was the only point of shipment to market, and was growing daily in commercial importance.

The First Church and School Established.

About this time, also, a small school was begun in a little log cabin, and taught by a Miss Perry. Not long after a Methodist church was organized by a circuit rider by the name of M. C. Turrentine, (who is yet an active old man and a worthy minister,) a suitable frame house was erected, which was the first house of worship built in Irwinton, (the same building is yet standing.) Population increased rapidly, and by the spring of 1836, the town numbered not less than five hundred inhabitants. About the Fall of ཟ another school was commenced, and the first male teacher in the place was named John N. McRae, who held his school in the Methodist church, and was himself a preacher.

Mode of Travel and Mails&mdash1836.

The means of communication and travel began to multiply and improve. Four and six-horse coaches were run between this place and Columbus, Georgia, two and three times a week, a distance of fifty miles also, a line of stages were established to Montgomery, Alabama, a distance of ninety miles, and, also, to Fort Gaines, Georgia, Tallahassee, Florida, and other points. Mails were received from New York city in ten or twelve days.

Steamboats and barges plyed up and down the Chattahoochee river constantly, and thereby communication was had with the only seaport of all this part of the country. It was only by that route the merchants could receive their supplies from New York, and which generrally occupied about thirty days in transit, and it was often thought fortunate if goods were received even in sixty days after they

were purchased. Communication was also had with New Orleans by this route, and nearly all the groceries were bought from that market.

Beginning of Indian Troubles.

Matters were going on smoothly the people were all prospering and gradually developing the wealth of the country but some, in their eagerness for gains, attempted, and, in many instances, did, defraud the Red Man out of his rightful inheritance and they began to get uneasy and jealous at the encroachments of the pale faces, and, in their sober moments, reflecting on the frauds so often perpetrated on them by bad men, who had made them drunk when trading for their lands, that they might the more easily be cheated out of their possessions.

The Indians Commence Hostilities.

The Indians now declare "war to the knife, and the knife to the hilt," against the white man and soon the forrest echoes around Irwinton were awakened by the savage war-whoop,&mdasha cry which, if once heard, will remain ineffaceably stamped upon the memory, and which none can utter like an infuriated savage.

The White Men "Fly to Arms and Organize."

It was not many days before every man was under arms.

Three companies were at once organized and fully equiped, two companies of infantry and one of cavalry, the infantry respectively commanded by Capt. Ben. Watson and Capt. John L. Hunter, and the cavalry by Capt. John M. Moore. Also, the entire militia of the county was called out and placed on a war footing for immediate service.

An Alarm, and Building a Stockade.

One day, in the early spring of 1836, the intelligence was brought to town that the Indians were advancing in large numbers on the place whereupon the bells were rung and the drums beat, and the people assembled and it was

determined at once to bnild a work of defence, and immediately everybody went to work to build a stockade fort. The pine trees being ready on the spot selected for the works, they were cut down and cut in lengths of about fifteen feet and split in halves, and set up on end, in a trench dug about three feet deep, and thus firmly planted. Loop holes were cut between the logs, through which to fire at the enemy. In the center of the enclosure therem was built a square pen of logs, closely notched together, for the purpose of an additional security for women and children and the helpless also, in which to keep supplies and ammunition, and to be used as a dernier resort in the event of being driven from the fort. The construction of this work of defence was a lively scene. Everybody worked with a will and so, by nightfall, the work was completed, and the women and children and all necessary supplies for a siege were duly placed within the enclosure. Fortunately, the Indians never came, and the place was never attacked.

An Incident.

On one dark, rainy and dismal night, during the occupancy of the fort, it was feard an attack might be made under cover of the darkness hence the guards were largely increased, and the bravest men put on duty, nnmbering about thirty or forty. A good part of the night had already passed without alarm, when, all at once, a tremendous yelling was heard north of the fort, towards the Chewalla Creek, and an attack was believed to be imminent. No lights being permitted in the fort, all was as dark as darkness could be but the commanding officer satisfied himself that every man was at his post, and all awaited with bated breath the attack. The yells came nearer and nearer, and soon the tramp of horses and men was heard and as the gray dawn began to reveal objects in the distance, there was seen Capt. John M. Moore's cavalry company approaching, and on reaching the fort and being

admitted, the disclosure was made that many of the guards had deserted their posts in the darkness, and had, unobserved climbed over into the inner fort among the women and children, even leaving their guns behind them and also the commanding officer thought discretion the better part of valor, and, as an additional security, had made the same retreat, and hid by the sugar barrel. The cause of the alarm was given by the company who had been out on a scout, and in returning thought they would try the garrison, which resulted as related. After this, the companies left the stockade and went in search of the Indians, and had many skirmishes with them, but never found them in large bodies.

Business all suspended.

During all this time business was suspended, schools were closed, traveling was extremely dangerous, and so Irwinton received a terrible chock to her advancement, and a feeling of gloom and despondency settled over her people.

The Indian War Over.

In a few, but long and weary months of dread and fear, the war was over. The Red Men had all been driven out of the country, and finally the United States Government transported to the Indian Territory all who surrendered themselves, (where they now are), and again "white-winged peace brooded over the land."

The First Newspaper, 1837.

It was now 1837, and new settlers began to pour in from all directions, and new enterprises were originated, among them, the first newspaper, a weekly, was commenced, bearing the title of "The Irwinton Herald." It was owned and edited by Mr. W. G. M. Davis, and printed by Mr. Jack Hardman. The latter gentleman is now dead, but the former is yet living, and an honored citizen of the State of Florida, and was a Major-General in the late war. The paper was not popular, and was soon discontinued, the office passing into the hands of Mr. John Currie and Gen.

Page 14
John P. Booth, who resumed its publication under the management of two practical printers, Mr. William Hudson and Mr. John Bosworth. The paper was published in the interest of the Union Party, and became very popular.

New Buildings, Churches, and Schools.

By this time the business of the Town had largely increased, new streets had been laid out, several fine residences had been erected on the bluff overlooking the river, the pine forest was being rapidly felled around the Town. A Baptist Church was organized, and a neat and commodious house of worship was erected also the Presbyterians organized and built a neat house and, also, the Methodists built a new house, better suited to their increasing necessities. A new Academy was built and titled "The Irwinton Literary Institute," under the charge and control of a splendid gentleman and fine teacher, Mr. A. K. Merrill, assisted by a Mr. Goldthwaite. It was a flourishing institution, at one time numbering 150 pupils of both sexes.

The Irwinton Bridge Bank.

A Bank was organized and chartered, styled the "Irwin ton Bridge Bank" and, just previous to that, a fine covered bridge, spanning the Chattahoochee, was built by the town, at a cost of twenty thousand dollars, which was a large enterprise for those days.

New Brick Stores Erected, and Patriotism.

Brick stores began to be built in the place of frame buildings. Two fine Liberty Poles were planted at each end of the principal street, and from them, on the Fourth of July and Washington's Birthday, the 22d of February, was seen, proudly floating, the emblem of the Nation's glory&mdash"The star-spangled banner, long may it wave O'er the laud of the free, and the home of the brave."

Financial Crisis&mdash1837.

The year 1837 was one of financial depression, and business suffered much, and many Irwinton merchants were

nearly ruined the value of real estate was greatly reduced, and many who had speculated in that kind of property lost heavily. Agricultural Interest. The agricultural interest of the country around Irwinton was constantly increased by immigration. Rich planters, with their slaves, sought the fertile lands, on the creeks and the river, in its immediate vicinity, and, for the convenience of their families, and to educate their sons and daughters, lived in town, building for themselves convenient and handsome residences.

Cotton Culture Increasing&mdash1839.

Cotton began to be a considerable item of export, and, by the year 1836, not less than five thousand bales were shipped from this point to Apalachicola, for New York, Liverpool, and other markets. Also, the country produced all the meat and corn necessary for the demands of the people, and everybody was independent there were no beggars, and loafers were unknown.

"The Nepenthes"

It was during this year that the newspaper of the Town was again compelled to change proprietorship, and was purchased by Dr. Levi T. Wellborn, who changed its name from "The Herald" to "The Nepenthes," its name being somewhat curious and novel its proprietor a man of indomitable energy and determination the paper was well received, and bid fair to prove a success. The printer who managed its publication was named Richard Mooney. The paper, however, had but a brief existence, the Doctor soon finding there was no money to be made in the business, and in addition to that, his failing health, and the great difficulty in getting reliable printers to do the work, he sold out the office to Messrs. McMurray, Ticknor & Arnold, who at once unfurled to the breeze of public opinion

"The Champion of Democracy"&mdash1840.

Mr. McMurray was the printer who controlled the median-

Page 16
ical part of the paper, and Mr. Ticknor acted as editor. The former gentleman has long been dead, but the latter is now living in a large town of this State, and is an honored and worthy clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church.

The Presidential Campaign&mdash1840.

The paper continued its issues until after the election of Gen. William Henry Harrison, President of the United States, which it most bitterly opposed in well written articles from the pen of its able young editor. There were maay humorous caricatures, that appeared in its columns, made on wood, by a gentleman of the Town such as a picture of a log-cabin set up on triggers, baited with a hard-cider barrel and also of Gen. Harrison as the hero of Chillicothe, receiving from the hands of the ladies of that village a red-flannel petticoat for his valor, etc., etc.

A Thespian Corps.

A Thespian Corps was organized for the amusement of the people, composed of the young men of Irwinton, and for many months was quite a success, and developed some fine histrionic talent.

John Gill Shorter and Others.

Also, at this period began the legal profession of John Gill Shorter, who became eminent as a jurist, and afterwards was elected Governor of the State of Alabama. George L. Barry, who was Judge of the Circuit Court, and Sterling G. Cato, who for many years was a Judge in Kansas, and also many others who rose to more or less distinction.

Four Years after the Indian War.

Four years after the Indian war, Irwinton had made due progress, and presented the most gratifying evidences of thrift, and a good degree of wealth and refinement. Many of her citizens kept their neat carriages and fine horses and those who were rich were so in fact, owning lands of virgin soil of great fertility, and slaves who did all

Page 17
the work contentedly and happy. The product of the plantation satisfied all their wants, so far as the inner man was concerned, and the sale of the cotton crop gave them ample means for all else that was necessary and, besides, they always had to spare, hence when the occasion presented itself, they dispensed their hospitality in a princely style. As their wealth increased, their sons and daughters were sent to the then great centers of education and learning, Yale College, Bridgeport, Princeton, and other places.

Happy Days of Progress.

The summer tour through the Northern States was adopted about this time, and thousands and tens of thousands of dollars were expended annually to aid in enriching the people of the North. Thus the years passed on in quietness and prosperity, and nothing troubled the people of this section. All kinds of enterprises flourished, and Irwinton gradually advanced in importance, and soon became a commercial town, forming the center of a large planting district of a circle of seventy-five miles around. She had come out of the fire of war and desolation and moral corruption. The bad men who had hung as an incubus about her in her early days had departed for that (then the rougue's) paradise, Texas yet there were many old legal feuds to settle and adjust.

An Opportunity for Men of Genius.

Litigations were not few. This, however, only helped to develop men of mind and ability, who, probably but for these causes, would have remained "unknown to fortune and to fame" and in after years we find such men as Hon. Eli S. Shorter occupying and filling with distinguished ability a seat in the United States Congres and aiso L. L. Cato, Esq., a lawyer of distinguished ability and the Hon. James L. Pugh, who, to-day, is the Patrick Henry of Alabama and many others who deserve a niche in the Temple of Fame. In this connection, we would particu-

larly mention General Alpheus Baker, the eagle orator of Alabama, and now the Hon. Judge of the City Court of Eufaula.

Mercantile and Financial Successes.

The mercantile interest had, up to this time, kept pace with the material progress of Irwinton, and many large stocks of goods were offered to supply the needs of the people of the country. A Mr. S. S. Walkley here laid the foundation of a handsome fortune, which he is now enjoying, in a green old age, in the city of Philadelphia. Mr. Edward B. Young, also, who is a banker, of this city, and also, Mr. John McNab, who is the heaviest financial man in this section, and through whose hands the largest portion of the money passes that moves the cotton crop of this part of the country. Many others have gained moderate wealth, and succeeded in surrounding themselves with comfortable livings.

The Name of "Irwinton" Changed Back to "Eufaula"&mdash1842.

In the year 1842 it was determined to change the name of Irwinton, because there was a town of similar name in the adjoining State of Georgia, and letters and packages intended for this place would often be sent there, and vice versa, which was a source of considerable vexation and annoyance to the business men. On one occasion, Mr. E. B. Young, having had a package of money missent to Irwinton, Ga., determined to take the matter in hand, and set about getting up a petition to the Legislature, asking that the change be made. He carried the petition around and obtained the signature thereto of every man in Irwinton but one. The petition was forwarded to Gen. William Wellborn, then representing the county in the Legislature, and the General, who had some old grudge against Gen. Irwin, was glad enough to get the name changed that helped to perpetuate the memory of a man for whom the people had as little sympathy as the General himself. It was duly presented and granted, and so the beautiful

embryo city was re-baptized into its original and beautiful Indian name, " Eufaula."

"The Southern Shield"&mdash1841.

The last newspaper, "The Champion of Democracy," had ceased its issues and its office was closed and the press carried away, and the town had been without a paper some time, when Mr. Benjamin Gardiner commenced the publication of "The Southern Shield," which was devoted to the interests of the Whig Party. It had for its motto: "The Cradle of Science, the Nurse of Genius, and the Shield of Liberty" but, not advocating the popular side of Southern politics, it was never a success. It was, however, the only medium of the current news of the day, and many subscribed for it who were not in sympathy with its political opinions.

"The Democrat"&mdash1845.

But, in the year 1845, on the 25th day of June, another journal was commenced, published by Mr. John Black, and edited by Edward C. Bullock, Esq., a young man of most extraordinary ability, and a gifted writer. It was not long before "The Democrat" was the popular paper of the town of Eufaula, and had a successful career.

" The Spirit of the South "&mdash1850.

In the year 1850, when sectional politics began to be agitated, and the muttering thunder of the approaching political storm was heard in the distance, the name of '' Democrat" was changed to "The Spirit of the South," and fearlessly advocated those measures, which it never for a moment forsook, until the final abitrament of the sword decided the contest. Then its name was changed, and it now lives under the name of "The Tri-Weekly News." Its first publisher, Mr. John Black, has been dead several years but his mantle has fallen upon the shoulders of his worthy son, who now both edits and publishes the paper.

Agriculture and Value of Ptoperty&mdash1858.

During the intervening time, between 1843 and 1860, the town and county continued to improve, and especially the agricultural interest. The cotton crop was continually growing larger every year. Many planters were moving into the county, and by the year 1858, Barbour county had within its limits 12,000 slaves, valued at $8,000,000, and 525,000 acres of land, valued at $8.00 per acre, making $4,200,00, and town lots, valued at $550,000&mdashmaking a grand total of wealth amounting to $12,770,000. The prosperity of the county continued until the late civil war, when all industries were paralyzed and the accumulation of years of patient toil-were swept away in an hour, and yet. Eufaula was spared that destruction which was ruthlessly visited upon many of her sister towns and cities.

Federal Cavalry Under Gen. Grierson.

The Federal cavalry passed through the streets of Eufaula in the spring of 1865, but just at the moment when the armistice was declared, and General Grierson, at the head of four thousand cavalry, arrived only in time to enter in peace, and after a few days of inoffensive sojourn, departed quietly.

Population of Eufaula, and Business.

Today the Bluff City (as it is appropriately called,) numbers about 5,000 inhabitants ships about 30,000 bales of cotton per annum, valued at $1,800,000, and the general business of the city exceeds $4,000,000 a year. The present assessed value of real estate is ($1,000,000) one million dollars.

Stores, Public Buildings, Churches and Dwellings.

There are over fifty brick stores in the city, besides three handsome drug stores, one carriage factory and many small shops a handsome opera house, built at a cost of nearly $60,000 Hart's Hall, the largest and finest dancing saloon in the State, and under which there are six

elegant stores. The Baptists have a superb church edifice, costing $40,000 also the Methodists have a beautiful building (one of the handsomest in the city) erected at a cost of $15,000. The Presbyterians have, also, a very fine house, costing $25,000. The Episcopalians and Roman Catholics each have neat but small houses the former, however, propose at an early day to erect a church more suitable to their growing necessities. The Jews, having purchased the old Methodist Church building, have re-fashioned it, and, at considerable expense, have now a beautiful synagogue which reflects much credit upon their good taste and liberality, and is an ornament to the city. The Female College is most beautifully located on a high hill overlooking the city, and is a very tasteful building, costing $10,000. Many handsome private residences, costing from five to twenty thousand dollars, are dotted all over the city. The streets of the city are very broad and cross each other at right angles with perfect regularity. The forest has long since receded to the dim distance, and now no one would ever believe that the present site of this beautiful inland city was once a dense forest of pines, and that only forty years ago the savage Indians here dwelt, and hunted his game, and woke the echoes of the hills with his yells.

Railroad Facilities To-Day.

Evidences of progress are to be seen in the railroad facilities at hand. The Montgomery and Eufaula Railroad, connecting here by rapid transit with all the South and West, Northwest and East. The Southwestern Railroad of Georgia, (which here crosses the Chattahoochee river on a splendid covered bridge, eighty feet high and 900 feet in length, costing $100,000,) gives her communication with the North and East, and the Brunswick and Vicksburg Railroad, extending now as far as twenty miles west, to the town of Clayton&mdashthe county site&mdashbut which will ultimately be built as far as Greenville, Alabama, and thus

placing Eufaula but a very few hours from New Orleans. The first train of cars that ran within the corporate limits of Eufaula was in 1865. The terminus of the Southwestern Railroad was on the other side of the river for many months before the bridge crossing the river was completed.

Cotton Speculating Mania.

Since the late war, fortunes have been made and lost in Eufaula. Cotton speculating has been the bane of many a good man, who has fallen a prey to its seductive charms, and up to this time there is not a man who has derived any permanent advantage from that kind of investment, yet others are constantly and as eagerly trying the same experiment over again.

Building and Loan Association, and the People's Saving and Loan Association.

A Building and Loan Association has been organized in this city, and is in successful progress, and has assisted many a poor man to provide for himself and family a home which he otherwise would not have had. A Savings and Loan Association was also founded a few months ago, and now have already accumulated a cash capital of $100,000, and are now doing a regular banking business.

" The Bluff City Times,"

Edited by R. D. Shropshire, Esq., is as spicy a little sheet as can be found in the land. Mr. Shropshire is a good writer and of large experience. The two papers of the city being published on alternate days, the citizens have the same advantages a daily would afford, jvith much more variety.

Debts and Credits.

A new order of things is now being inaugurated in the way of debts and credits, and business is being conducted on a cash basis, and the future looks more encouraging.

Water Power and Climate of Eufaula.

When the great natural resources in water power for

Page 23
running mills and cotton factories shall be utilized that are now lying idle in easy reach of Eufaula, she will be made one of the finest manufacturing centers in the whole South. Her climate is salubrious, and does not require acclimatizing for Northern or Western people to live here comfortably and healthfully all the year around. No one ever visits her hospitable people who do not feel glad they have made them a visit and would be pleased to make it their home.

A Hero of San Jacinto.

This little city has been, and now is, the home of quite a number of public men, whose names in the State are as familiar as household words, and also, of some who, less eager for the world's applause, have lived and died in retirement and prominent among them is Col. Dougald McLean, who was a soldier in the Texan war of 1836. He held a first lieutenant's commission in Captain Wardsworth's company of Col. Fannin's regiment from Georgia, and participated in the ever-memorable battle of San Jacinto, which was fought under General Sam. Houston, on the 21st day of April, 1836, and determined the fate of Texas, so gloriously achieving her independence. Lieutenant McLean's sword is now in the possession of his family, and also, a shot-gun, called an "Escopet," and a pair of Mexican cuffs &mdash the latter he took from the body of one of the men he killed in battle. The name of the Mexican is embroidered in black silk on the inside of the cuffs, and reveals the name of "L. Arollo." Col. McLean (who was afterwards made a Colonel of the militia), during his life time, on each recurring anniversary, fired a salute of one gun in honor of the battle of San Jacinto, and on the last occasion was on his dying bed, but, faithful to the pledge he had made to himself, had his attendants carry him in a chair to the gun, and applied the match with his own hand. On the 13th day of the following May, 1859, he ended his mortal life, and was buried with military

honors, and three salutes were fired over his grave, one in honor of General Houston, he so much loved and honored one in honor of the great battle of which he was a hero, and last as a tribute to his memory.

Having endeavored, with all the information we could obtain from eye witnesses of past and personal experiences, to give you a full and truthful account of the origin of Eufaula, and some of the leading events in its history, we now bid you adieu and hopefully look forward to the future, when our children shall write yet more pleasing reminiscences of this now beautiful city.


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Early Settlers of Barbour County, AL

WILLIAM WELLBORN was one of the original settlers of the town of Eufaula, and owned. a portion of its site. He was a native of Georgia, and had served Houston county in the legislature of that State. He was in command of the whites in the affair on Pea river, in Pike, and deported himself with courage and foresight: In 1837-40 he represented Barbour and Russell in the State senate, defeating Hon. James Abercrombie the only time that popular citizen was ever beaten. General Wellborn was also major-general of militia in this State. In 1836 he removed to Fort Bend county, Texas, where he was a prosperous planter for twenty years. In 1867 he died in Houston, Texas, at the age of 75 years. Two of his daughters married Judge Cochran of Eufaula, and a number of his relatives are in this county. He possessed much force of character, and judgment, and practical sense.

JOHN P. BOOTH was also a noteworthy citizen of Barbour. He was born in Elbert county, Georgia, in 1806, and was the son of Col. David Booth and Elizabeth Posey. His father served under Gen. Jackson, and died in Eufaula many years ago. The son was graduated at Franklin College, and licensed as an attorney in 1826. A year later he located at Woodville, Henry county, this State, and there began the practice of the law but spent the winters in Apalachicola. In 1832 he located in Apalachicola, and the year after was a member of the territorial council, and president thereof. In 1835 he settled in Conecuh county, this State, as a farmer and lawyer. The year after, while he was escorting his family to Georgia, he was warned not to pass through the Creek nation, for they were hostile. He stopped hi Pike county, recruited 150 men, and led them to Columbus, Georgia, in which vicinity he was slightly wounded in a skirmish. November 22, 1836, he was elected solicitor of this judicial district, and a few months later made Irwinton (Eufaula) his home. In April 1837 he was elected major-general of militia. Having resigned the solicitorship, he was elected to the legislature from this county, and by that body, January 31, 1839, elected judge of, the circuit -court, defeating Messrs. Nathan Cook of Lowndes and H. W. Hilliard of Montgomery. In 1843 he resigned and left the bench. He appeared no more in public life, but practiced law. His death occurred in Eufaula, May 23,1851. He was twice married, first to Miss Dewitt of Georgia, then to Miss Hodges of Florida, and the latter, as well as several of his descendants, reside in this county. One of his sons was graduated at West Point in 1848, and died in North Carolina in 1863, while serving as an officer in the Confederate army. Gen. Booth was liberally endowed by nature. His mental processes were wonderfully quick and precocious, and his memory exceedingly retentive. His temperament was ardent, his perceptions intuitive. He was learned in the law and eloquent in speech. The late

JOHN GILL SHORTER was a distinguished citizen of Barbour. He was the son of Gen. Reuben C. Shorter, a physician and planter, who was born in Virginia, and came to Georgia in. early youth was there a member of both houses of the legislature, a major-general of militia and whence he came to this county in 1833, and here died in 1854. His wife was Miss Gill of Georgia. The son was born in Monticello, Georgia, April 23, 1818, and was graduated at Franklin College, Athens. He came to this State the same year, and in 1838 was admitted to the bar. Establishing himself in Eufaula, he gave his whole attention to his profession. In 1845 he entered the legislature as a senator from this county, his majority being 87 in a county which gave the other party a majority of 250 the year before. Declining further service at the end of two years, he was again called to serve the county in the representative chamber in 1851. A few months later he was appointed by Governor Collier to the bench of the circuit court in the room of Judge Goldthwaite, who had resigned. In May 1852 he was elected to the office for a term of six years over F. S. Jackson, esq.. and he was re-elected without opposition in 1858. He was thus serving when Gov. Moore appointed him commissioner to Georgia, and he urged the legislature of that State to co-operate in the movement for separation. While absent on this mission he was elected to represent his district in the provisional congress and it was while he was in Richmond attending the sitting of the latter body, that he was elected governor of the State by a vote of 37,849 to 28,127 for Hon. T. H. Watts of Montgomery. During his term, believing that the future rights and interests of Alabama hung on the success of the confederate cause, by no act or word of his was any obstacle thrown into the scale adverse to it. Coupled with his patriotism were his unremitting efforts to provide for the families of soldiers, and to construct defenses at Mobile for the safety of the country. But the morbid desire of the masses for a change defeated his re-election in 1863. He was not afterwards in public life, but resumed the practice of law at the peace. He died May 29, 1872. Governor Shorter was of ordinary height, with a delicate figure, and an intellectual cast of features. He was without arrogance or ostentation, and had the most unaffected mildness and simplicity of manners. He served the State ably and faithfully appearing to have no other purpose in office but to” execute justice and maintain truth,” and therefore was patient in hearing argument, laborious in investigation, and firm in decision. To this he added the purity of life which so well becomes one conspicuous to the public eye. He married a sister of Gen. C. A. Battle of Macon.

ELI SINS SHORTER, brother of the foregoing, also resides in Barbour. He was born in Monticello, Georgia, in 1853, and came with his parents to this county in 1836. He is a graduate of Yale College, and his -law studies were pursued in the office of his brother, John G. In 1845 he was admitted to the bar, and established himself in Eufaula as the associate of his brother. His first appearance in public life was when he became the nominee of his party for congress in 1855, and was elected over Hon. Julius C. Alford of Pike. He was re-elected in 1857 over Hon. Batt Peterson of this county, carrying every county in the district. While in congress he acted with the Southern Rights’ ‘wing of the Democratic party. At the close of his second term he voluntarily retired, to give his attention to his private affairs. He’ was an elector for Breckenridge, and the following v ear was appointed colonel of to 18th Alabama infantry. He served with this command till the spring of 1862, when he resigned. He has since devoted himself to his profession, to planting, and to his duties as president of the Vicksburg & Brunswick Railroad. During the presidential campaign of 1868 he canvassed the northwestern States in behalf of the Seymour ticket, and his interest in all public matters is unabated. Col. Shorter is of ordinary stature and light frame. His polished exterior is in accord with a refined mind, endowed liberally by nature. As an orator he is fluent and graceful, and his glowing imagination often rises to flights of thrilling eloquence. He is cautious and observant, and has been successful in business. He married Miss Fannin of Troup county, Georgia. Major H. R. Shorter of this county is a brother the late Capt. Geo. H. Shorter of Montgomery, State printer at one time, was a cousin.

JAMES LAWRENCE PUGH, of this county, is a native of Butts county, Georgia, where he was born December 12, 1819. His father was a farmer, born in North Carolina the maiden name of his mother was Tillman. His parents came to Pike county when he was about four years old, and at the age of eleven years he was an orphan. Cast upon the world, in a frontier country, he resorted to divers commendable shifts to make his way. At one time he rode the mail route from Louisville to Franklin, Henry county, Saturdays and Sundays, to get the means to pay his tuition the other portion of the week. For four years he was a salesman in a dry-goods shop in Eufaula, but abandoned that to attend a school, preparatory to a course of law studies. He completed the latter in the office of Hon. John G. Shorter in Eufaula, by the pecuniary assistance of his brother-in-law, Mr. W. L. Cowan. Enrolled as an attorney in 1841, he formed a partnership with Hon. Jefferson Buford which existed for twelve years, and was thereafter associated with Hon. E. C: Bullock. He was on the Taylor electoral ticket, and the year after was defeated for congress by Hon. H. W. Hilliard of Montgomery. In 1856 he was an elector on the Buchanan ticket, which was his first official trust. Elected to the congress of the United States in 1859 without opposition, he withdrew with his colleagues when his State seceded from the Union. He shortly after volunteered as a private in the 1st Alabama Infantry, and served a year at Pensacola. The same year he was chosen to the 1st Confederate congress without opposition, and was re-elected in 1863 over Messrs. J. McC. Wiley and A. W. Starke of Pike, and Dr. Jones of this county. Having served till the overthrow of the Confederacy, he has not since taken an active interest in public affairs. He married a daughter of Gen. John L. Hunter, a wealthy planter of this county. Mr. Pugh is large of frame, and compactly built, with an abrupt but cordial address. He is an orator of much force and power figuratively speaking, “a great bronze battering ram. He harbors the most practical of ideas, and his expressions are strikingly pointed and original. He has one of the most capacious and tenacious legal minds in the State. He is naturally extravagant there is no half-way house for him in anything. He is the most emphatic man I ever knew. Highly sociable, no man surpasses him in hospitality. He is an interesting companion, instructive, witty, and jovial, and is very generally popular. He is certainly one of the self-made men of the State.”

JOHN COCHRAN also resides in Barbour. He was born in Cocke county, Tennessee, and was the son of a farmer. Graduating at Greenville College, he read law, and in 1835 Caine to Jacksonville, in this State, to practice. He first entered public life as a representative from Calhoun in 1839, and was thrice chosen to that position while residing in that county. In 1843 he came to Barbour, and established himself in Eufaula. Two years later he was the candidate of his party for congress, but was beaten by Mr. Hilliard of Montgomery. In 1848 he was on the Cass electoral ticket, and in 1851 was again defeated as • the candidate of his party for congress, after a warm canvass with Hon. James Abercrombie of Russell. From 1853 to 1857 he represented Barbour in the general assembly, and in 1861 in the constitutional convention. In the latter year he was appointed to the circuit court bench to fill the vacancy made by Gov. Shorter’s resignation and, being subsequently elected by the people, he held the position till 1865, when he was displaced by the result of the war. In 1861 he volunteered into the service of his country, and served a year at Pensacola. Since the war he has given attention to his profession, in which he ranks among the foremost in the State. He has an exceedingly active as’ well as capacious mind, unsurpassed for nice and accurate discrimination, and powerfully analytical. “There is more to convince one in the mere statement of the ” question by Judge Cochran than there is in any common ” man’s argument. Combined with this happy faculty, he also reasons well and illustrates clearly. He is witty, and ” cherishes a lively sense of the ridiculous which makes him ” an exceedingly interesting speaker, and a most entertaining “conversationalist.” He is an easy, fluent, speaker “quite logical and persuasive, but never boisterous, fiery, or ” combative in delivery.”+ Indeed, Judge Cochran’s prodigal endowment of mind is in excess of his physical energy or, to use one of his own expressions, ” He has an immense engine if he only had steam enough to run it.” His high sense of honor and integrity, added to a marked amiability of disposition, combine to render him a useful and popular citizen, as. well as a gifted man. He married a daughter of Gen. William Wellborn of this county, and afterwards her cousin. His present wife is a daughter of Mr. W. Toney, a planter of’ the county. His son is a member of the bar of Eufaula. Barbour cherishes the memory of “the beloved and matchless BULLOCK. (What a splendid future was forbidden to be “realized by Fate’s harsh mandate in his untimely fall!”) – Gen. Alpheus Baker of Eufaula.

EDWARD COURTENAY BULLOCK was born in Charleston, S. C., December 1825. His father, a native, of Rhode Island, was a merchant of moderate means in Charleston. His mother was the sister of Mr. Edward Courtenay of that city. The son was graduated at Harvard College in 1843, and the same year came to this State and county. Here he taught a school two years, and read law meantime. Licensed to practice in 1846, he established himself in Eufaula. For several years he was the law partner of Hon. J. L. Pugh, and edited a weekly newspaper in Eufaula at the same time. In 1857 he was chosen to represent the county in the State senate, and for four years filled that position. He was among the first to volunteer into the military service of his country, and served some months at Pensacola. In the summer of 1861 the Eighteenth Alabama Infantry was. organized, and he was chosen colonel. He accepted the trust, and it was while he was discharging his duties at Mobile that he contracted the typhoid fever which proved fatal to him. This event occurred at Montgomery, in December 1861, when he was 36 years old. The appearance of Col. Bullock was very prepossessing. He was well made, with full features, broad forehead, and large mouth. But “his noble features in repose were only the princely castle at dusk before the lamps are lighted, and give no idea of the magic transformation which in an instant the splendid illumination of his mirthfulness and genius could effect. He was the best organized man I ever knew. His temper and taste were perfect. His whole nature was genial, refined, and gentle. His mind was remarkable for its activity and brilliancy. His personal integrity, and devotion to principle, duty, and truth were very striking. He was a fine lawyer, and an able advocate and his high personal character, honorable nature, and irresistible wit and elegance made him a lawyer and statesman of as high promise as any man who ever lived in Alabama.” – Hon, James L. Pugh of Eufaula. Col. Bullock married a Miss Snipe of South Carolina, and his son and two of his daughters reside in this County. The State honored his memory by bestowing his name on one of her fairest counties. There was no effort at wit on the part of Col. Bullock. It seemed to bubble tip irresistibly. An instance of it will illustrate the facility with which he emitted lashes of this happy faculty It was during what Mr. Pugh calls ” the Honeymoon of the war” at Pensacola, He and Bullock slept together one cold night. Early in the morning Bullock lordly complained of his bedfellow. ” You pulled off all the blanket on yourself, and appropriated the entire mattrass.” ” I didn’t know of it,” said Pugh, ” why didn’t you speak?” ” ‘eGad,” said Bullock, ” if I didn’t speak it wasn’t because I didn’t have the floor !”

The late LEWIS L. CATO came to this county in 1837. He was a native of Hancock county, Georgia, and was a prominent citizen of Barbour during his life. He devoted himself assiduously to the law, and became an able attorney, of very sound opinions. From 1861 to 1865 he represented the county in the senate with credit to his constituents and to himself. He died December 4, 1868. His brother, STERLING G. CATO, also resided here for some years, and acquired considerable reputation as an attorney. He removed to Kansas, during the slavery agitation there, and succeeded Hon, Rush Elmore as territorial judge. He subsequently practiced in St. Louis, Missouri, and there died about the year 1867.

Another strongly marked character in this county was JEFFERSON BUFORD. He was born in Chester district, South Carolina, in 1805 or 𔃶. His father was a Virginian, who came to South Carolina after attaining the estate of manhood. The son read law in the office of his maternal uncle, Mr. Nathaniel R. Eaves, and was enrolled as an attorney in 1828. In 1832 he came to this State, and settled in Pike county. He practiced law there six years, then came to this county, and established himself in Eufaula. In 1840 he was elected to the State senate from Russell and Barbour, and served seven years in that body. He was associated in the practice of law with Messrs. Pugh and Bullock for some years. During the memorable Kansas troubles of 1855, he saw that the struggle for dominancy between the North and South had begun, and he urged that it was far better to solve the fearful problem by votes in Kansas than by bayonets on the Potomac. Hence, at the head of a large party of emigrants he sought home in that territory, and labored, there and here, with Veil and tongue, to arouse the people of the South to the real nature of the collision. His prophetic voice was not fully heeded, Kansas was lost, and the remainder of the story is written in the blood of a million of combatants. He returned to this county after the question was decided, and in 1861 was elected to the constitutional convention. He died suddenly of heart disease, in Clayton, Aug. 28, 1862. Though not a popular favorite, few men were more highly esteemed than Maj or Buford. “He was a man of pure private “character. a first-rate lawyer, a cultivated gentleman, and one “who was tree to his convictions. He was somewhat eccentric,. “but was a public spirited, energetic, reliable, useful, amid successful man.” -Hon. James L. Pugh of Eufaula. He married first a daughter of Maj. or John H. White of this county, and his second wife was Mrs. McNeil: His widow and children reside here. J. M. Buford, esq., of the Eufaula bar, is a half-brother.

Barbour is also the home of ALPHEUS BAKER. He was born at Clover Hill, (Clover Hill was at one time the home of the father of Hon. William L.) Abbeville district, S. C., May 28, 1828. His father, a native of Massachusetts, was eminent as a teacher’ and a scholar. His mother, a Miss Courtney was a native of Ireland. Possessed of nothing but the education his father gave him, the son began to teach school before he was sixteen years old. He taught with success in Abbeville, S. C., in Lumpkin, Ga., and in Glennville, this county, to which he came in 1848. Having read law meantime, he was enrolled as an attorney in 1849, and opened an office in Eufaula. His advancement was so rapid that at the spring term of 1855 he returned 105 cases to the circuit court of Barbour. In 1856 he accompanied Major Buford to Kansas, and returned to canvass the country to arouse the people to the importance of making Kansas a slave state. He believed with the noble Buford that the acquisition of Kansas would restore the equilibrium of the slave and anti slave states, and prevent the “inevitable conflict” between the two sections. In 1861 he represented the county in the constitutional convention, but resigned his seat to enter the army. This he did as captain of the “Eufaula Rifles,”+ which he led to Pensacola. There he remained till November, when he was elected colonel of a regiment of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama troops at Fort Pillow, above Memphis. This regiment participated in the siege of New Madrid, and was captured at Island Ten, Yancey. This company had on its rolls at Pensacola the names of 50 persons who subsequently became offices. Among the members were Messrs. John Cochrane, J. L. Pugh, E. C. Bullock and S. H. Dent, all of Barbour, T. J. Judge of Montgomery, D. W. Baine of Lowndes, Prof. Parker of Tuscaloosa, and Prof. Thornton of Perry. April 10, 1862. Exchanged with his regiment in September, the four Tennessee companies in it gave place to four Alabama companies, and the regiment took the title of 󈬦th Alabama.” It fought at Fort Pemberton, on the Yazoo, and at Baker’s Creek, where Col. Baker was severely wounded in the foot. Promoted to brigadier general, March 1864, he was assigned to the command of the 37th, 40th, 42d, and 54th Alabama regiments. He led them from Dalton to Atlanta. At Resaca his horse was killed under him, and at Atlanta (July 28) he was slightly wounded. The brigade lay near Mobile till January 1865, when it proceeded to the Carolinas. At Bentonville, though it numbered only 350 muskets, it captured 204 of the enemy. Since surrendering this brave brigade in North Carolina, Gen. Baker has given his time to his profession. Gen. Baker is full of genius, and possesses a rich diversity of talents. He is a scholar and critic, a painter, a musician, with superior vocal powers, and one of the most companionable of men. As an orator he is perfectly captivating. He intersperses his speeches with sparkling witticisms, and laughable anecdotes, not infrequently illustrated by his inimitable mimicry. He stirs up the feelings and passions of men alternately convulsing them with laughter, melting them to tears, or arousing their indignation. ” He is unquestionably the ” finest orator in Alabama, but he doesn’t know it, and hence ” doesn’t appreciate it.” – Col. Wm. C. Oates of Henry.

HENRY DELAMAR CLAYTON also resides in this county. He was bone in Pulaski county, Georgia, March 7,1827, and is the son of the late Mr. Nelson Clayton of Lee county, He was graduated at the Emory and Henry College, Virginia, and read law under Messrs. John G. and Eli S. Shorter in Eufaula. In 1849 he was licensed as an attorney, and opened an office in Clayton. Assiduous attention to his business kept hiel out of public affairs till 1857, when he was chosen to represent the county in the legislature, and served in the popular branch till 1861. At the first mutterings of the war-storm he urged Gov.. Moore to accept the volunteer regiment of train bands of which he had been colonel, and in February got two companies accepted, in one of which he was mustered in as a private. But he was at once ordered to Pensacola to take command of all the Alabama troops as they should arrive. March 28, 1851, the 1st Alabama infantry regiment was organized with him as colonel, and he remained in that capacity a year at Pensacola. He then organized the 39th Alabama, which he commanded in the Kentucky campaign. At Murfreesboro he was severely wounded, and immediately afterwards promoted to ‘ brigadier. The 18th, 36th, 38th, 32d, and 58th Alabama regiments were placed under him. The services of this brigade were too varied and arduous to be recounted here. The battles of Chicamauga, Rocky Face, and New Hope belong to history, and the conduct of Clayton’s brigade constitutes an important part of each. The part Gen. C. took in the latter battle were such as to secure his promotion to the rank of major general, and he took command of what had been Gen. Stewart’s division-Gibson’s, Stovall’s, Strahl’s, and (his old now)’ Holtzclaw’s brigades. With these troops Gen. Clayton participated in all the subsequent battles and campaigns of the army of Tennessee, up to the surrender in, North Carolina. After the battle of Nashville, with his division, and Gen. Pettus’s brigade, he covered the retreat of the army till Gen. Stevenson relieved him the next day. How well he performed this difficult task may be learned from the fact that he repulsed, with scarcely the loss of a man, every assault of the enemy, never failing to damage hint severely, and capturing at different times four stands of colors and more than 100 prisoners. At the close of active hostilities he gave his attention to planting till elected judge of the circuit court in May 1866. This position he held till removed by congress in 1868, since when he has practiced law in Clayton, and planted. Gen. Clayton is six feet in highth, and proportionately stout. His deportment is quiet and somewhat reserved but he is very approachable: He was one of the fighting generals of the western army, ever prompt and ever present. He is active, laborious, and practical in the affairs of life and his philosophic temperament and steady energy are such as to give weight to his counsel. He is also pious and moral, and possessed of much public spirit. He married a daughter of Gen. John L. Hunter of this county. Capt. Joseph C. Clayton of the 39th Alabama, killed at Chicamauga, was a brother.

Source: Alabama, her history, resources, war record, and public men: from 1540 to 1872, Brewer, Willis, Montgomery, Ala.: Barrett & Brown, 1872.


William Barbour - History

County History

Source: Alabama As It Is by Benjamin Franklin Riley, D. D., 1887 , Transcribed by C. Anthony

The county of Barbour was formed in 1832 and named for Governor James Barbour, of Virginia. It has long been one of the leading counties of the State. It has been noted, not only for the thrift and prosperity of its citizens, but for their refinement aud intelligence, as well. The county has furnished a number of the most distinguished men of the State. No other county leads Barbour in its progress in agriculture and the manufactures. It has an area of 860 square miles.

Population in 1870, 29,309 population in 1880,33,979. White, 13,091 colored, 20,888.

Tilled Land: 197,455 acres.&mdashArea planted in cotton, 100,442 acres in corn, 61,822 acres in oats, 10,264 acres in wheat, 131 acres in rye, 112 acres in rice, 35 acres in tobacco, 22 acres in sugar-cane, 647 acres in sweet potatoes, 1,274 acres.

Cotton Production : 26,063 bales.

It will be seen by these figures that Barbour is emphatically an agricultural county. For the pursuit of agriculture, it is most admirably fitted by Nature. It has generally a slightly undulating surface, with hills along the northern end. The lower portions of the county are generally level. Barbour creek, a large stream which flows nearly through the heart of the county, in a southeasterly direction, divides it into two sections. North of this stream are the most fertile lands. Amid the Cowikces (a name given a group of streams in that section) we find a portion of the famous Black Belt. Here have been for many years, and still are, the extensive plantations which have given Barbour such a reputation abroad as a superb farming section. Almost without exception, the lands in this region possess superior fertility. A large proportion of the colored population is found in this region, whither they have located as the tillers of the soil. They live directly upon these productive lands, while the white settlements are upon the knolls and more elevated portions. For social refinement and elevation, this part of the county can not be surpassed. The prolific lands of this region have an admixture of lime, and away from the streams are reddish or light colored. Those bordering the several forks or creeks which water this section are much more sandy, but highly productive.

Looking southward from Barbour creek, the lands are freer from hills and much more sandy than those lying beyond the stream and in the north. In this part of the county (the southern) the surface sand has a deep clay subsoil, and is susceptible of a high degree of fertilization. It is described as being highly favorable to small model farms, as different crops can be rapidly planted and gathered in rotation.

A high ridge follows the windings of Pea river, which is not so fertile as the neighboring regions, but which is thickly timbered with valuable oak, hickory, and walnut. The productions of Barbour county are cotton, corn, oats, peas, millet, sorghum, potatoes (sweet and Irish), and sugar-cane. The last-named product is so easy of cultivation, and under favorable circumstances is so productive, that it is annually assuming greater importance.

All the vegetables grown in the Temperate Zone flourish here without limit.

Fruits are easily raised and are winning more attention year by year. Pears, peaches, plums, grapes, figs, and melons of every variety are the fruits which are generally grown. Captain R. F. Kolb, who resides near the city of Hufaula, derives immense profit from his watermelon farm. During the past year he planted 200 acres in watermelons alone. He has an immense nursery of fruit trees, and has an orchard with 2,500 LeConte pear trees. He also produces large quantities of seeds for Northern dealers. Grasses and clovers grow beautifully in the county, both in their native wildness and when cultivated. These, together with the wild cane, which grows along the streams, keep the stock roaming at large, in excellent condition almost throughout the year.

The woods of the county are mainly stocked with such timbers as oak, hickory, poplar, long-leaf pine, walnut, and persimmon.

The county is drained in the north by the several forks of Cowikee creek, along the eastern slopes by the Chattahoochee, the central and southern parts by the headwaters of the Choctawhatchee river, and the western part by Pea river. This affords an idea of the superior watering facilities of the county.

From the hills in the southwest have been gathered specimens of iron ore. Lime rocks prevail in abundance in different portions of Barbour, while specimens of kaolin have been secured. In the town of Louisville is a bed of green marl about twelve or eighteen feet below the surface and in vast quantities. Repeated experiments by gardeners prove its value.

In the southern portion of the county four miles above the line of Dale, is a great natural curiosity in the form of a magnificent spring, the dimensions of which are 40x80 feet. Its waters are of a bluish cast and so transparent that the light glows through them. The eye of a fish is distinctly seen in their shining depths. This was once a point of popular resort, but since the destruction of the spacious hotel it has been abandoned as such. The waters of this wonderful spring are supposed to possess wonderful curative powers. There issues directly from it a large, bold stream.

Eufaula, a city of 6,000 inhabitants, Clayton, the county-seat, and a point of interest having quite an educational spirit, and Louisville, with a population of several hundred, and Batesville are the important centers of the county. Among these Louisville may be mentioned as one of the oldest towns in this section of Alabama, and has long been noted as possessing a thrifty and intelligent population. Eufaula is one of the principal cities of the State. By reason of its location as a commercial center, it has long been regarded a point of great importance. This estimate of the city is further enhanced by the projected railway from this point to Florida. It crowns a lofty bluff on the western bank of the Chattahoochee river, 180 feet high, overlooking that stream for many miles, in both directions, and commanding a view of beautiful landscapes for a great distance beyond. It is noted for its health, superior society, enterprising business men, schools, and churches. Its compresses, machine shops, factories, foundries, flouring and corn mills, weaving mill, and presses attest its importance as an enterprising center. It has good hotels and many handsome private residences. Its church architecture will compare favorably with that of any city in the South. It has a female college and superior male schools.

Clayton, with a population of 600, has a female college and first-class male institutions. Educational advantages are found in every portion of the county. Churches exist also in every section.

Transportation is secured through the Montgomery and Eufaula railroad, the Eufaula and Clayton railroad, and the Chattahoochee river.

Lands may be had, by those wishing to settle in Barbour, at prices ranging from $2.50 to $20 per acre. No people would hail more readily the influx of a thrifty, industrious population than those of Barbour county.

There are 5,520 acres of government land still untaken in the county.

Source: Northern Alabama - Historical and Biographical by Smith & De Land, Birmingham, Ala 1888 - Transcribed by Veneta McKinney

Population: White, 13,091 colored, 20,888. Area, 860 square miles. Woodland, all. Oak, hickory and long-leaf pine, 610 square miles Blue marsh land, 250 square miles.

Acres - In cotton (approximately), 100,000 in corn, 61,800 in oats, 10,300 in wheat, 150 in rye, 100 in rice, 50 in tobacco, 25 in sugar-cane, 650 in sweet potatoes, 1,300. Approximate number of bales of cotton, in round numbers, 26, 100.

County Seat - Clayton population, 1,200 located seventy-five miles southeast of Montgomery, and at the terminus of the Eufaula & Clayton Railroad.

Newspapers published at County Seat - Courier, Democrat at Eufaula, Mail, Times, News - all Democratic.

Post offices in the County - Batesville. Belcher, Bush, Clayton, Clio, Coleridge, Cotton Hill, Cowikee. Cox's Mill, Elamville, Eufaula, Harris, Hawkinsville, Howe, Lodi, Louisville, McInness, Mount Andrew, New Topia, Oateston, Pea River, Reeder's Mill. Star Hill. Tub, White Oak Springs, White Pond.

The county was organized in 1832, and named in honor of Gov. James Barbour, of Virginia. It lies in the eastern portion of the State, and is separated from Georgia by the Chattahoochee River, which forms its entire eastern boundary. Barbour ranks as one of the leading counties in the State.

A line drawn east and west through Barbour County, near the center, will divide it into two parts which are quite dissimilar. The soils on the north of this line are more or less calcareous, those on the south, sandy. The northern half has a substratum of marl and limestone of the upper cretaceous formation, which, acting upon the soil, gives rise to some of the best and safest cotton lauds in the State. This portion of the county is drained by the three forks of Cowikee Creek, and is known throughout the county as the Cowikee lands.

The soil is moderately stiff, calcareous clay, with patches of what is known as hog-wallow, which are seldom more than an acre or two in extent. In the immediate vicinity of the streams the soil is much more sandy, but highly productive. The general appearance of these lands is that of a gently undulating, occasionally hilly region, somewhat resembling the prairies of the Rotten Limestone country, hut with reddish or light-colored soils. This region, though fertile, is malarious, and is inhabited by comparatively few white families. The negroes, however, appear to endure it very well. There is a peculiar mixture of trees characterizing these lands, viz. : hickory, white and Spanish oaks, sweet and sour gums, and long-leaf pine. The latter appears to be out of place with such surroundings.

The Chattahoochee River forms the eastern boundary of the county, and the bottom lands of this stream are from one to three miles wide, and very productive, Next to these are the second bottoms or hummocks, or pine Hats, always safe and easy to cultivate. Bordering upon these are the foot-hills of the pine uplands.

Although the larger part of the surface of this county is occupied by brown loams, with a growth of oak, hickory, and pine, yet the characteristic agricultural features of Barbour depend upon the blue marls of the Cowikee and other drainage areas of the northern half of the county. A large proportion (more than half) of the cotton crop is produced in the northeastern part of the county, where these marls give character to the soils. There is, perhaps, no part of the State which ranks higher in the production of cotton than the blue marl lands of adjacent parts of Russell, Barbour and Bullock Counties, whose prevailing soils are light, sandy loams, easily worked, possessing a comparatively high percent- age of lime, by which they are rendered extraordinarily thrifty.

From the hills in the southwest have been gathered specimens of iron ore. Lime rock prevails in abundance in different portions of Barbour, while specimens of kaolin have been secured. In the town of Louisville is a bed of green marl about twelve or eighteen feet below the surface, and in vast quantities. Repeated experiments by gardeners prove its value.

In the southern portion of the county, four miles above the line of Dale, is a great natural curiosity in the form of a magnificent spring, the dimensions of which are 40x80 feet. Its waters are of a bluish cast and so transparent that the light glows through them. The eye of a fish is distinctly seen in their shining depths. This was once a point of popular resort, but since the destruction of the spacious hotel it has been abandoned as such. The waters of this spring are supposed to possess wonderful curative powers. There issues directly from it a large, bold stream.

Clayton is the county seat, and is a pleasant little village. It is the seat of several excellent institutions of learning.

Eufaula, on the Chattahoochee is the most important place in Eastern Alabama. It is a city of between six and seven thousand people, and has a promise of an extensive growth in the near future. Eufaula's commercial importance will be greatly increased by the completion of several railroads which are projected. Batesville and Louisville are the other towns of the county.

WATER MILLS OF BARBOUR COUNTY IN 1886

Source: Bulletin, Geological Survey of Alabama, by Truman H. Aldrich, 1886 - Transcribed by Veneta McKinney

The following is a list of the water powers that are utilized. The most of these powers are small, but they make a large aggregate, and they represent only an insignificant part of the power that is capable of development.


William Barbour - History

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Barbour County Courthouse PO Box 310 Philippi, WV 26416-0310 Phone: (304) 457-2232 Barbour County Historical Society Main and Depot Philippi, WV 26416 Belington Public Library PO Box 878 Belington, WV 26250 Phone: (304) 823-1026 Librarian: Janice Coontz Philippi Public Library 110 North Main Street Philippi, WV 26416 Phone: (304) 457-3495 Librarian: Mary Ellen Weekly Pickett Library Media Center Alderson-Broadus College Philippi, WV 26416 Phone: (304) 457-1700, ext. 258

Federal Census Records for Barbour County Barbour County 1850

Images of the Federal Census 1860 pages are available online. See the Index first to locate the pages you want to view. Then see the original records at: Barbour County 1860 Census Images

Volunteers are needed to transcribe the Federal Census Records for the USGenweb Census Project. Want to volunteer? See how at: USGenweb Census Project Hening's Laws of Virginia An online transcription of the laws of Virginia from 1619 to 1792. Chalkley's Abstracts of Scotch Irish Settlers from Augusta County Records All three volumes of this wonderful collection of entries from records of the early settlement of Augusta County, Virginia are now online! In spite of its title, there are records of many non Scots-Irish settlers. 700 West Virginia Families These records, compiled by Don Norman, can provide you many clues to identify your West Virginia ancestors. Hacker's Creek Pioneer Descendants Members research all the counties once comprising Harrison County. You will find numerous resources on this page. Allegheny Regional Family History Society This society focuses on Randolph, Barbour, Pendleton, and Tucker Counties in West Virginia and some Maryland counties. Randolph and Barbour were part of Harrison County at one time. Marriages Performed by the Reverend Simeon Harris in Barbour and Randolph Counties This additional source for Barbour County area marriages (1809-1846) can be found on the Allegheny Regional Family History Society Web page.
Guide To Virginia Historical Resources A listing of Virginia libraries, museums and other historical, cultural and genealogical resources. Beyond Germanna If you have early German lines from Orange Co. VA or from the Virginia Piedmont, east of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the modern counties of Culpeper, Fauquier, Madison and Rappahannock you must see John Blankenbaker's website and newsletter. West Virginia Division of Culture and History Included on this web site are:Archives and History, Arts, Historical Preservation, Museums with many links and databases to explore. See resources for Barbour County here. WV Division of Culture and History Vital Research Records Search The birth, marriage and death records for WV counties are available for 6 counties (Calhoun, Gilmer, Hardy, Harrison, Mineral and Pendleton) additional counties have been added. The latest records available are for events 100 years ago ie, for 2011 -- records from 1910 or earlier. An exception in the case of the original 6 counties surveyed permits access to records as late as 1930. West Virginia Encyclopedia West Virginia Collection Special Collections, Morrow Library, Marshall University Archived Obituaries: The Parsons Advocate
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Geographic Name Info System Query Form Visit the USGS and the Geographic Name Information System online for maps and information. Land Record Research Taking the Mystery Out of Land Records
Where to Obtain a Land Patent
Help for your research in these important resources, by Linda Haas Davenport [email protected] 1860 Barbour County Census Surname Index online tool offered by John F. Schunk of S-K Publications. CensusTools 35 free electronic spreadsheets for archiving federal, state and international census data! Designed and offered by Gary Minder. Barbour County Genealogy Mailing List This list is maintained by Margaret Lew for the discussion of families in Barbour County. To subscribe, send regular e-mail to [email protected] In the body of the message type Subscribe. Instructions for posting will arrive in the e-mail confirmation of your request to subscribe. Harrison-Monongalia Mailing List This list is maintained by Sue Moore. It is for discussion of families in Harrison, Marion, and Monongalia Counties. To subscribe, send regular e-mail to [email protected] and in the body of the message type < SUB harrison-monongalia.va your e-mail address>. You will receive instructions for posting via e-mail. Asturian Genealogy Does your family have roots in Asturia? Learn more about Spanish emigrants from Asturia to WV many to work in the mining industry. Managed by Bob Martinez, Suronda Gonzalez and Art Zoller Wagner, this page offers a mailing list and much of interest, including family histories of emigrants. Families of Barbour County Post your webpage link or family association address here. Send information to me Margaret C. Lew Brady Trilogy Page There is much interesting information on Barbour County on Robert M. Brady's Web site. It features a detailed ancestry of the following surnames: BRADY, COPELAND, CRISLIP, CURRY, HENDERSON, KNAGGS , LEMON, LOBBAN, MATHEWS, MURPHY, PRICE, ROW, SHOMO, SQUIRES, THRASH, UMSTOT, VIQUESNEY, WARE and WINGFIELD. Christlieb - Chrislip - Crislip Family Association Web site maintained by Jeff Christlieb, includes several photos of the family cemetery near Elk City, WV. William K. Fisher's Genealogy Pages Fisher, Holsberry families and more. Carole Ann Heaster's Page Read about Barbour in the 16 Mile Story and bibliography by Georgia Golden Heater and see Carole Ann Heaster's Cunningham Family Tree. FamilyHart Online Database Don and Jeanine Hartman's FamilyHart Online Database recently updated with a total of over 405,000 linked names online contains thousands from Barbour County. Families such as Sturm, Gainer, Ryan, Stemple, Poling, Nestor, Bennett, Stalnaker, and many more are found in it. WVReed Family Blog and Photo Collection David Williams's photo blog for the Reed family has photos of Ida L. Reed, the hymn writer and other Reed family members. The Reger Family Page Dan Hyde's page devoted to the genealogy and history of the Hans Jacob and Barbara (Crites) Reger family of Virginia and West Virginia: genealogy, articles, images and links. Diana Taylor's Page Diana Taylor's family page has DeLauders (and variant spellings), Murphy, Nestor, Phillips, Bennett, etc. - lots of Barbour County names. Amy Bolton's Page Amy Bolton's family page has information on the Biller's, Bolton's, Ketchem's and McDaniels and other Barbour County names. Marshall Lucas's Page Marshall Lucas collects information and links connected with his families: Mayle, Mail, Male, Norris, Goins, Gowins, Croston, Hill and others from Barbour County. Nancy McKane's Page Many Barbour County ancestors. Use password to access it: "Longfellow" Harry Skidmore's Web Page Harry Skidmore has information on his Skidmore and Ball ancestors from Barbour County and some data on the Hovatter line. Donna Summers's Web Page Another site for Donna Summers For information on the Colebank, Dadisman, Stewart, Smith and other Barbour County names. The second site has a searchable family tree. Walter Family Web Page Dale Walter's family settled in the Barbour County area around 1805. Dale invites you to visit his two web pages The second site is: The Walter Family and Religion http://members.cox.net/dwalter1/religion.html The Four Goff Brothers of Western Virginia Phillip Goff presents this site devoted to the study of the ancestors and descendants of James Goff (1735-1834), John Turton Goff (d. 1803), Thomas Goff (1747-1824) and Salathiel Goff (c1748-1791). This site includes information on the history and genealogy book published on this family in 2003, a DNA study of the Goff surname and links to Goff forums. Proudfoot Family Martin Lewis Proudfoot has begun a genealogy site devoted to his Proudfoot family in the Talbott Community of Barbour County. The Proudfoot family has lived in Barbour County since 1808.


From Graces Guide

of Hilden Mills, near Belfast

1785 Company originated in Lisburn, Ireland it was established by John Barbour who bought linen thread for manufacturing in Scotland.

John Barbour's son William took over the company, followed by John Dougherry Barbour.

1831 Works moved to Hilden.

1889 Extended their Flax mill using triple expansion engines by Victor Coates and Co, ribbed rings by John Brown and Co and plates by the Steel Company of Scotland. Ώ]

1898 William Barbour and Sons merged with other thread manufacturers to create Linen Thread Co but continued to use the original name as flax spinners.

1970 Barbour Threads was part of Lindustries ΐ]

1976 Queens Award for Export Α]

1999 Hicking Pentecost, which owned Barbour Threads, was acquired by rival Coats Viyella Β]


William Barbour - History

Jarad Garlesky 30 June 2012
Criss Cemetery
We have been searching high and low for the "Criss cemetery" in Barbour county west Virginia. I have found listings on various websites with pictures and a church still present in the background. No site whatsoever has an address listed and I have ancestors there and would like to nail down a location. Where is this cemetery. Has it been renamed?

MCL Note: The Criss Church graveyard is in the Union District, located on US Route 119.

Christine Phillips 13 April 2012
Belington School
Hello- I am looking for information on a school located in or near Belington around 1930-1932. My grandfather Hobson Dewey Phillips was a teacher in the area up to his death in 1932. I would love the name of the school, how long he taught, and of course, any pictures or stories/information about him, his immediate family, or the school. My dad was very young at the time of his father's death and remembers very little [and they left the area shortly after his death]. I am trying to track down information for him.
Many thanks!
Christine Phillips

Bertine Lockhart 29 October 2010
BERRYBURG
In Barbour County there used to be a coal mining town name of Berryburg. My grandparents and their children lived there for awhile. This was back in 1902 they went back and forth for awhile, my mother was born there in Berryburg, March 1910. In trying to find some info on a death I was told by an uncle long ago that the courthouse in Berryburg burned and all records lost. Did Berryburg actually have a courthouse or was it reported in Philippi perhaps? I can't find anything online and I sent away for the book that listed deaths in that timeline. Can you help me out on anything at all regarding this town?
Thank you so much
Bert at: [email protected]

William J. Robinson Tuesday March 14, 2006
Taylor's Drain Cemetery
I have just set up a non-profit association for the Taylor's Drain Cemetery in Barbour County, WV. The West Virginia Methodist Conference is now in the process of deeding the cemetery over to the association. We will be repairing tombstones filling in graves putting up a fence and gate and improving the grounds as needed. We are looking for old photos, records, newspaper articles, etc. for the possible publication of the history of the church and of those people buried in the cemetery. Any help would be appreciated.

You can e-mail me or mail the information to:
William J. Robinson
Taylor's Drain Cemetery Association, Inc.
6138 Rohrersville Road
Boonsboro, MD 21713-2749

or feel free to call after 7:00 p.m.

Ron Kuzemchak Thursday December 22, 2005
HEISLEY - WEAVER - 'HEISLEYWOOD'
John HEISLEY WEAVER - philadelphia businessman - supposedly had several coal mines in Barbour and Preston counties (1890-1930). One mine / town was supposedly called 'HEISLEYWOOD'- anyone know of its location? JHW was also a 'president' of the West Virginia Northern Railroad at some point!

Freda Windle Saturday July 2 2005
Moatsville info
I need directions to Moatsville and its cemetery. My ggggrandmother Sarah Frey Annon is buried there with other relatives. Any help is appreciated.

Robert Bonar Monday April 18 2005
High Schools
I am looking for information regarding a black high school once operated in Philippi. The only thing I know about the school is that it was in operation during the 1939-40 school year, when it was listed as "Colored High School" in the state educational directory. I would appreciate any information (dates of operation, name of school, mascot and school colors). I would also like to hear from someone who knows the histories of Belington, Kasson, and Philippi high schools and may have pictures of them.

Emily Cary Weds March 30 2005
Churches in Nestorville c.1887
I am writing a book about my grandmother's experiences as the wife of a West Virginia minister and am eager to know what churches existed in Nestorville at the time of her marriage to Rev. Millard Fillmore Pritchard in October 1887 and if they are still in use. My grandfather later transferred to the West Virginia Methodist Conference, but I believe that his Nestorville charge was a United Brethren Church. His first wife, Margaret (Maggie) Cerilda Kelley, died in childbirth January 12, 1887 at age 22, leaving two children. Incidentally, I see that his initials are incorrectly listed as N. E. Pritchard in the records of Nestorville Cemetery, Barbour County, no doubt because they had become indistinct on her gravestone by the time it was enumerated. He was named for U.S. President Millard Fillmore thus, his initials were M. F. Pritchard. He married my grandmother, Rosa Bell Nestor, a member of his church, within the year and they had three children of their own, one being my father, Ernest Markwood Pritchard.
Sincerely, Emily Pritchard Cary, [email protected]

Susan Crites Thu December 30 2004
Notable West Virginians in the Civil War
I am writing abook about Notable West Virginians in the Civil War and wondered who was the most notable Union and most notable Confederate in the Civil War. Any help would be much appreciated.

Christy Heatherly Thu November 25 2004
Hackers Creek
I am interested in the settlements on Hackers Creek in Barbour County. Any information would be appreciated. Surnames: HEATHERLY - SWIGER - WILLIAMS.

Robert Ryczak Mon May 10 2004
CENTURY
My great grandfather, Robert BERNOSKY, a Hungarian immigrant, died in a coal mine near Century, WV, around Sept 1903, 3 months before my grandfather was born. Don't know if he's still in the mine or was buried elsewhere. Looking for details about the town, the mine, local Hungarian immigrant life, how Hungarians found out about coal mines in WV, who brought them there, any local mine disasters around that time and place.

Maureen Richie October 27 2003
BRUSHY FORK
Hi, can anybody please help me? My great grandmother used to live in Barbour County, and when she was a little girl she attended Brushy Fork Church. She was born in 1893. I am presuming then it would date back before the early 1900's. Please email at [email protected] Also please put Brushy Fork in the subject line.
Thanks, Maureen

Martha Boone Sun October 26 2003
AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY in BARBOUR COUNTY
I would like some information regarding the black population in Barbour county. I was born in Galloway, West Virginia. My fathers surname was Johnson and my mothers maiden name was Cosby. I would like to know if anyone has done any research or has any history of the black families that resided in Galloway or Brownton West Virginia. My family all graduated from Philippi High or Philip Barbour High School. I would appreciate any information.

Nanette Forrester June 3 2003
TACY
Does anyone know how the town of Tacy got it's name, or any of it's history. Thank you.

Ralph P. Bennett April 21 2003
ELK
I am doing research on Draper Trimble who enlisted in Company D, 20th Virginia Cavalry on May 1, 1863. His place of enlistment was listed as 'ELK', West Virginia. In Barbour there is no longer an Elk town name. There is an Elkwater. I have seen "Elk Twp" listed in birth, death registers. Can anyone help me sort out this place of enlistment. Are or were the place names interchangable or separate? Do you know the exact location Of Elk? Any assistance would be greatly appreciate. Thanks, Ralph Bennett

Howard Ashenfelter Feb 27 2003
ASHENFELTER HOUSE
Does anyone have any information on the family that owned the Ashenfelter house, spelled Ashenfidter in the "Walking tour" section of the Barbour County Home Page? Col. Kelley was taken there after being wounded during the Civil War battle in Philippi.

Does anyone know what became of Jacob Ashenfelter who owned the house? Did Jacob die? Was he killed during the war? How about his son Thomas? What became of him? Jacob Ashenfelter was my grgr grandfather. What happened to the family and the house after the Civil War battle.

I know what happened to the son, from whom I'm descended, but nothing of the rest of the family. When did the family come to the county? Any information would be appreciated. Howard Ashenfelter E-mail:[email protected]

Anna Ringler Sep 13 2002
Barbour County Natural Gas Company
I am seeking information on the Barbour County Natural Gas Company. Whether it changed names, was sold, anything. We have stocks from this company dating from 1921-1925 any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.

Phil Phillips Sun Nov 11 2001
Phillips Fort
Does anyone have any information on the Phillips Fort that was located at Meadowville, Barbour County, WV.
Thanks, Phil Phillips, E-mail:[email protected]

Lulu Grubb Tue Aug 21 2001
The town of Claude, Barbour County
Does anyone have any information on the town named Claude in Barbour County? How did the town get its name? Was there a mine or a mill or was it always farms? My husband and I found Claude Road. We stopped and asked where the town was and we were told the whole area was Claude. Any information will be appreciated. E-mail: [email protected]

James F. Wisecup Tues May 22 2001
BIGGS
Dr. William BIGGS lived on a farm near Laurel Hill. His farm was in between the north and south in the Battle of laurel Hill. Can anyone pinpoint the location of this farm for me?

Lee F. McGee Tue Jan 30 2001
Taylor's Drain Church
Does anyone know anything about layministers in the Methodist church in Barbour County? In particular, I'm looking for pastors or ministers, ordained or otherwise, of the Taylor's Drain Church. I know that Thomas Proudfoot was at least one, but if anyone has any idea of others please let me know. I'm particulaly interested in the mid 1800's. Also, does anyone know what would have happened to the records of the Taylor's Drain church after the tornado in the 1940's? I'd also be interested in any pictures anyone might be willing to share of that area after the tornado. Thanks again, all! Lee [email protected]

Ed Bennett Wed Jan 17 2001

I enjoyed reading about Barbour County, West Virginia. I have been trying to find information on the vote of the present West Virginia counties to leave Virginia and form their own state. Do you have a county by county vote tally, and were any of the counties west of the border counties loyal to Virginia? Have there been any books published on the proceedings? Thank you very much for your time. Edward Bennett/Roanoke, VA, E-mail: [email protected]

Sandra DeVault Tue Jan 16 2001
Philippi Covered Bridge
I am trying to locate information on how long it took to build the original covered bridge at Philippi? E-mail:[email protected]

Ralph Appy Mon Oct 30 2000
COFFMAN, Kasson WV
My mother was a Coffman whose family came from Kasson area: William, Henry, George etc. I noticed a reference to an article written by "the Coffmans" in the Kasson home page and was wondering where I might obtain a copy. Appreciate any help you could provide. Ralph Appy


William Barbour - History

Barbour Mill has a long and prestigious history in Lisburn and as the end of an era draws near many local people will be recalling their own memories of Barbour Threads.
In 1784 John Barbour, who hailed from Scotland, established a linen thread works in Lisburn.
At the same time his son, William, bought a derelict bleach green at Hilden and set up business.
Later, the thread works were transferred to Hilden and as early as 1817 it was employing 122 workers.
In 1823 William Barbour bought a former bleach mill at Hilden and built a water-powered twisting mill.
The Linen Thread Company was founded 1898 and it quickly became a large international company.
In fact it became the largest linen thread mill in the world, giving Lisburn a richly deserved international reputation.
By 1914 it employed about 2,000 people and until recently some 300 workers were still employed there, with the work-force dropping to just 85 in recent years.
Among the company's varied products were nets, which could be made into snares and fishing nets.
The company built a model village for its workforce in Hilden, which consisted of 350 houses, two schools, a community hall, children's playground and village sports ground.
Lisburn became the envy of the world thanks to its Linen and Thread industry and now the last remnant of that history is to close its doors for the last time.

Although I think we were about 6 years too late with this one. This was somewhere I have wanted to go for quite some time but with other commitments and other places to explore while over there it always got shoved to the back seat. This trip we finally got to go, explored with @hamtagger we had quite a leisurely stroll round this one. The first thing I noticed when getting close was how it was becoming crowded with new housing and developments. Still, it sits proud within its place. A bit of the site has already been demolished. The place is bloody massive! Spending numerous hours there and still not getting around the whole site led us to leave before darkness fell. We didn't cover the whole site so good reason to return at some point. The architecture was pretty impressive with the stonework and iron gables or whatever you call them. Surprisingly, despite being closed several years and falling victim to vandalism, graffiti & metal theft it still has so much to offer. There were little cupboards dotted about in most sections with linen/ thread materials. Loads of hand painted signs that were of little importance but I like stuff like that. The decay was pretty cool and I loved how trees were growing out of the top floors. Nature really was reclaiming it. A few of the ceilings had fallen in with those areas a bit more decayed than others. Right on to the pics


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