News

1 August 1941

1 August 1941


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

1 August 1941

August

1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
293031

Diplomacy

United States institutes an oil embargo against all "aggressors"



Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by karjala » 27 Oct 2016, 05:16

1 - Station Ino. Place the formation of the train to Leningrad.
2 - Bridge over Inonjoki. Photo 48470 - 48487, 50366 SA-kuva.
3 - Place to which reached the composition. 48684 - 48686 SA-kuva, 37
4 - blockage.
5 - to blow up the bridge over the Vammeljoki.
6 - Workaround7 - 1943 aerial photograph.

August 31 backing the railway part of the Red Army gathered at the station Ino (1). It also came two railway battery TM-1-180. one part of one active locomotive, which started moving in the direction of Leningrad was formed. After passing the bridge over the Inonjoki, it blew up (2). Next on the ways in Metsäjkula area on the tracks were blown up by a locomotive and wagons (4). The soldiers of the Red Army began to build a bypass path (6) and almost finished it, at 16:00 Finnish troops were attacked. As a result, the fight went to the railway battery Finns. Blow Soviet gunners failed railway battery. Advanced to Leningrad would not have succeeded - Vammeljoki bridge over the river was already blown.

Re: Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by karjala » 27 Oct 2016, 05:17

Photo 48470 - 48487 Repair of the bridge that will take away the battery to the rear rail. September 18, 1941. In the photo the bridge built 50366 - Sept. 24, 1941.

Which Finnish units could lead the Red Army on August 31?

Where are the dead Soviet soldiers buried?

Re: Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by Mangrove » 27 Oct 2016, 09:47

VTT = Valtion Tykkitehdas, "State Artillery Factory" located in Jyväskylä. The date is not recorded, but the number of the negative suggest they were taken in early September 1941. The persons present in photograph 48685 are as follows, from left to right:

General Oesch,
Master Gunsmith(?) Valtanen from VTT,
General Svanström and
Colonel Sippola.

Re: Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by JTV » 27 Oct 2016, 17:39

So, did I get this right: Two TM-1-180 railway guns fell into Finnish hands near bridge of Inonjoki River in August of 1941? If so, that is very interesting, since only Finnish source I have found about three TM-1-180 captured in Carelian Isthmus in year 1941 claims that they were captured in Säiniö / Cherkasovo bit south-east from Viipuri / Vyborg.

State Artillery Factory (Valtion Tykkitehdas / VTT) was the largest artillery repair facility of Finnish Armed Forces during World War 2. Among other things it also repaired railway guns. Title of the person wearing the overalls (mentioned in photo caption of photo #48685) is "Tykkimestari", which could be translated as "master armourer of artillery".

Re: Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by karjala » 29 Oct 2016, 22:42

Known rail guns were captured by the condition, which repairs
It was made for the factory VTT?

Re: Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by karjala » 30 Oct 2016, 02:06

Re: Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by JTV » 30 Oct 2016, 19:50

What is known one of the three TM-1-180 (identified in Finnish documents as number 68) was captured in Carelian Isthmus basically undamaged and became the first railway gun issued to 1st Railway Artillery Battery (1. Rautatiepatteristo), which was established in September of 1941. The second TM-1-180 that (number 102) was issued to this unit arrived from State Artillery Factory, where it had been repaired, in 25th of December 1941. According sources TM-1-180 railway guns captured in Carelian Isthmus were captured in notably better shape than the ones captured in Hanko Peninsula. 3rd and 4th TM-180 were presumably more severely damaged, since their repairs took a lot more time and were not issued until July of 1943 and October of 1943. Repairs of 5th TM-1-180 were completed too late for it to see any combat action.

There is no exact info what kind of repairs State Artillery Factory made these railway guns, but considering they were specialised in artillery weapons, must have been repairs made for the actual gun or its systems, not the railway car. 3rd Railway Artillery Battery (which operated captured TM-3-12 railway guns) had very large (TM-3-12 fit inside) gun hall built to Täktom (primary base of TM-3-12 railway guns) in Hanko Peninsula. The hall was used not only for repairs of TM-3-12, but seem to have also been for repairs of last two or three TM-1-180 railway guns.

I have a new page coming soon about Finnish-used railway guns. Only some finishing touches etc are still under work, so I will probably be able to get it online in week or two.

Re: Rail battery TM-1-180, Metsäjkula, August 31, 1941.

Post by karjala » 02 Nov 2016, 06:52

Documents repair railway gun is in the public domain? Or is it stored in the archive plant VTT or military archives?


The Soviet Atomic Bomb during World War II

The Soviet atomic program during the war was puny compared to the Manhattan Project, involving approximately twenty physicists and only a small number of staff. They researched the reactions necessary to produce both atomic weapons and nuclear reactors. They also began exploring ways to generate enough pure uranium and graphite, and researched uranium isotope separation methods.

Work on the program sped up quickly in 1945, however, especially after the Soviets learned of the Trinity test. At the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, Truman told Joseph Stalin about the United States atomic bomb program for the first time. According to Truman, "I casually mentioned to Stalin that we had a new weapon of unusual destructive force. The Russian Premier showed no special interest. All he said was he was glad to hear it and hoped we would make good use of it against the Japanese."

While Stalin may have appeared uninterested, he privately told his top advisers to speed up work on the Soviet atomic program: "They simply want to raise the price. We've got to work on Kurchatov and hurry things up.”

The Soviet regime immediately stepped up their program. General Boris L. Vannikov (who has been compared to General Leslie Groves) headed an engineering council that oversaw the project. Its members included Kurchatov, M.G. Pervukhin, A.I. Alikhanov, I.K. Kikoin, A.P. Vinovgradov, Abram Joffe, A.A. Bochvar, and Avraamy Zavenyagin.

Following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Stalin called for an all-out crash program in atomic research and development. In 1946 Yuli Khariton was appointed by Kurchatov as the program's lead scientist. He was tasked with directing atomic research, development, design, and weapons assembly, and helped select and establish the site of the secret Soviet nuclear weapons facility, known as Arzamas-16 and nicknamed “Los Arzamas.”


History unit 10

A
The United States and the United Kingdom were the undisputed masters of the Atlantic Ocean any interlopers would be sunk on sight.

B
that postwar international relations would be cooperative, and that disputes between states would be resolved through peaceful negotiation and not the use or threat of force.

a)Japan wanted to claim Hawai'i as an imperial colony they valued it for its sugar and coffee.
Japan was not trying to claim Hawai'i as an imperial colony.

b)President Roosevelt had embarrassed Emperor Hirohito at a state dinner in 1939.
President Roosevelt actually had sent a letter to the emperor the day prior to the Pearl Harbor attacks, urging Hirohito to seek peace in the Pacific.

a)The US military was desegregated with immediate effect
It was Executive Order 9981, issued by Harry Truman in 1948, which desegregated the military.

b)All US steel mills were placed under federal control
President Truman, not President Franklin Roosevelt, attempted to seize control of the US steel industry.

A
Japanese-Americans unlawfully interned by the United States government could sue for damages.

B
Americans of Japanese descent had their citizenship stripped from them for the duration of the war.

A
an amphibious invasion of Normandy, beginning the campaign to liberate France.

B
dropping atomic weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

A
the world's first-ever nuclear weapon.

B
technology used to spy on Germany.

A
embarked on a new set of anti-poverty and justice policies he called the Great Society

B
dropped nuclear weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

A
She was depicted flying combat missions one-handed while juggling an infant in her other hand, indicating the uncomfortable work-life balance for single working parents in the war years.

B
She was shown to be cunning and funny, but as an African American, her depiction veered into a hurtful stereotype.


Ronald H. Brown (1941-1996)

Described by President Bill Clinton as “one of the best advisors and the ablest people I ever knew,” Ron Brown was a leading American man of influence in the second half of the 20th Century who impressed Republicans and Democrats alike with his intellect and administrative ability. Ronald Harmon Brown was born in Washington, D.C., on August 1, 1941. His father, William, was a graduate of Howard University and an official in the Franklin Roosevelt Administration. William Brown married Gloria Osborne in 1940. In 1947, William Brown left government service to become the manager of the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, then often frequented by the leading black intellectuals and celebrities in the U.S. This rarefied environment offered Brown a wealth of opportunities for high-level social interaction.

Brown exhibited leadership and negotiating skill early. Brown became the first African American member of Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity when he attended Middlebury College in Vermont. His entrance prompted the national fraternity to change its constitution to allow black members. In 1962, Brown graduated from Middlebury, married Alma Arrington, and became an officer in the U.S. Army where he commanded units stationed in the U.S., Germany and South Korea until 1967. Brown was also a member of Sigma Pi Phi fraternity.

Returning to civilian life, Brown took a position with the National Urban League. He also attended St. John’s University Law School at night, graduating in 1970 and passing the bar in 1971. Brown stayed with the Urban League for more than a decade, rising to become its deputy executive director, general counsel, and vice-president of its Washington bureau. Through his work at the Urban League, he became known in Washington political circles and he eventually left in 1979 to work on the late Senator Edward M. Kennedy’s campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination.

When Senator Kennedy returned to the Senate, he offered Brown a position as Counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee, which the Massachusetts Senator chaired. Brown was recruited from that position to become the first African American partner at the renowned Washington law firm Patton, Boggs & Blow, where he became a highly influential, successful, and sought after lobbyist and counselor at law. He continued to be active in Democratic Party politics, playing a strategic role in Rev. Jesse Jackson’s 1988 presidential campaign. The following year he became the first African American to head a major U.S. political party as Chair of the Democratic National Committee from 1989 to 1992.

Having successfully led the Democratic Party to victory in the 1992 presidential campaign, Brown accepted an appointment in the Clinton Administration as the first African American Secretary of Commerce. Brown used the cabinet-level platform to advocate for the Clinton administration’s aggressive campaigns for free trade and to increase demand for American exports by opening new markets. Brown and 34 others perished in a plane crash in Croatia on April 3, 1996 while on one such mission. He was 54 years old and is survived by his wife, an executive with Chevy Chase Bank, daughter, Tracey, and son, Michael, both lawyers.


1 August 1941 - History

June 28 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand, prince to the Austria-Hungary throne, is assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian named Gavrilo Princip.

July 23 - Austria-Hungary makes demands on Serbia for retribution. Serbia does not meet demands.

July 28 - Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia begins mobilizing its troops.

August 1 - Germany declares war on Russia.

August 3 - Germany declares war on France as part of the Schlieffen Plan.

August 4 - Germany invades Belgium. Britain declares war on Germany.

August 23 to 30 - The Battle of Tannenberg is fought between Germany and Russia. The Germans defeat the Russian Second Army.

September 5 to 12 - The advancing German army is stopped before Paris by the British and French at the First Battle of the Marne. The Germans dig in and four years of trench warfare begins.

October 19 to November 22 - The Allies defeat the Germans at the First Battle of Ypres.

November 2 - The British begin a naval blockade of Germany.

November 11 - The Ottoman Empire declares war on the Allies.

December 24 - An unofficial truce is declared between the two sides at Christmas.

February 4 - The Germans begin to use submarines against Allied merchant ships around the island of Britain.

April 25 - The Allies attack the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Gallipoli. This campaign will last over eight months and will end as a victory for the Ottomans and the retreat of the Allies.

May 7 - The Lusitania, a luxury British passenger ship, is sunk by a German submarine. 1,195 civilians were killed. This act sparks international outrage and contributes to the United States joining the war against Germany.

October 14 - Bulgaria enters the war by declaring war on Serbia.

February 21 - The Battle of Verdun begins between France and Germany. This battle will last until December of 1916 and will finally result in a French victory.

May 31 - The largest naval battle of the war, the Battle of Jutland, is fought between Britain and Germany in the North Sea.

July 1 - The Battle of the Somme begins. Over 1 million soldiers will be wounded or killed.

January 19 - The British intercept the Zimmerman Telegram in which Germany tries to convince Mexico to join the war. This will result in the United States declaring war on Germany.

March 8 - The Russian Revolution begins. Tsar Nicholas II is removed from power on March 15.

April 6 - The United States enters the war, declaring war on Germany.

November 7 - The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrow the Russian government.

December 17 - The Russians agree to peace with the Central powers and leave the war.

January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson issues his "Fourteen Points" for peace and an end to the war.

March 21 - Germany launches the Spring Offensive hoping to defeat the Allies before reinforcements from the United States can be deployed.

July 15 - The Second Battle of the Marne begins. This battle will end on August 6 as a decisive victory for the Allies.

November 11 - Germany agrees to an armistice and the fighting comes to an end at 11am on the 11th day of the 11th month.

June 28 - The Treaty of Versailles is signed by Germany and World War I comes to an end.


1 August 1941 - History

Joshua Rubenstein, author and associate at Harvard's Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian studies, details the relationship between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in the decade before World War II.

Place

Topic

School Subject

Scope and Sequence

Transcript (Text)

One of the more surprising stories of World War II was the two-year complicated alliance the Soviet Union entered into with their former enemy, the Nazis.

The world was startled in August of 1939 when Hitler and Stalin announced that they had agreed on a non-aggression pact. For a decade, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany had been at loggerheads. Nazi Germany had a distinct anti-Bolshevik, antisemitic policy, was very much directed against the Soviet Union.

They were fighting each other through a proxy war during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s. And the Soviet Union was famous for being anti-fascist, anti-Nazi. There was always coverage in the Soviet press about antisemitism. There was comprehensive coverage in November and December of 1938 about the violence of Kristallnacht.

The Soviet government repeatedly denounced the antisemitic policies of Nazi Germany, so the world was taken by surprise when the dictators announced this agreement. And this completely changed world history. Within a week, Nazi Germany invaded Poland. This was the start of World War II in Europe. Two weeks later, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. And they divided Poland between them. This was the end of Poland as a country, as a sovereign state, at that time.

So between 1939 and 1941, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union are allies. And Stalin actually provides very substantial support to Nazi Germany. So when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June of 1941, this time it was Stalin who is taken by surprise. He had been given warnings, including warnings by Churchill and from other intelligence sources that the Germans were preparing an invasion.

But Stalin did not want to provoke Hitler, so he took no defensive measures. He was just afraid that his country wasn't prepared for war. And he was right, because within weeks, the Germans overran Soviet defenses and captured major Soviet cities.

The partition of Poland and the invasion of the Soviet Union and Soviet-held territories also heralded the beginning of systematic mass killing of Jews and other groups by the Nazis. At the time, approximately 3 million Jews lived in Poland alone. While the Nazis fought the Red Army on the Eastern Front, they also constructed and used several concentration camps where millions of people, including Jews, Roma, homosexuals, the mentally ill, the elderly, and children died.

Between 1941 and 1944, the Red Army resisted the Nazis on Soviet territory. By 1944, they pushed the Nazis back westward and reclaimed the Nazi-occupied territories of Byelorussia, Ukraine, the Baltic region, and eastern Poland. As they advanced, the Red Army liberated several concentration camps, coming face-to-face with some of the unspeakable horrors of the Holocaust. Fighting between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union continued until the capture of Berlin and the German surrender to the Allies in May 1945.


AUGUST 12 - DAILY CHRONICLES OF HISTORY

Stalin granted a temporary one-time amnesty for all Polish citizens imprisoned in the Soviet Union. (Polish Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Jews were excluded because they were considered Soviets). The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet signed the document on August 12, 1941 which temporarily halted persecutions against Polish civilians under Soviet occupation. (About two million Polish men, women and children had been deported to Russian camps after the Soviet Union invaded Poland on September 17, 1939) With the outbreak of war with Germany in 1941, Russia was seeking help from other countries. On July 5, 1941, Sikorski initiated negotiations with Russia to re-establish diplomatic relations and it culminated in the Sikorski-Maysky Treaty, signed on July 30, 1941, which forged a military alliance. At the same time, the previous German-Russian pact (the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact) of August 1939 was nullified, and an agreement was made for the release of some Polish prisoners - but only about 100,000 Polish men, women and children were permitted to leave. General Wladyslaw Anders ordered an evacuation, the first phase which took place between March 24 and April 4, 1942 where 33,069 soldiers, 10,789 civilians, and 3,100 children left the Soviet Union for Iran. (at this point Polish - Soviet relations deteriorated and the NKVD began arresting Polish officials. ) The second evacuation took place from August 9 to September 1, 1942 consisting of over 43,000 soldiers and about 25,000 civilians. Thousands died along the way. Only 40,000 Polish men were recruited to a new Polish Army, which became the 2nd Polish Corps, commanded by General Anders. The Polish army earned a reputation for being skilled, fierce soldiers in the battlefield.

The Battle of the Falaise (or Falaise Pocket) (Aug 12-21,1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy. The Western Allies formed a pocket around Falaise, Calvados in which the German Army Group B, and the 7th Army and the Fifth Panzer Army were encircled. In the ensuing battle, most of the Army Group B west of the Seine were decimated, thus opening the way to Paris and the Franco-German border for the Allied forces on the Western Front. The Germans began to withdraw on August 17, and on August 19 the Allies linked up in Chambois. Gaps were forced in the Allied lines by German counter-attacks, the biggest being a corridor forced past the 1st Polish Armoured Division on Hill 262, a commanding position at the mouth of the pocket. By the evening of August 21, the pocket had been sealed, with approximately󈎶,000 Germans trapped inside. Though it was a decisive allied victory. Allied troops suffered 5,150 casualties of which 2,300 were the soldiers of the Polish 1st Armoued Division. Canadian troops suffered 5,679 casualties. German casualties were 60,000 ( 10,000 killed, 50,000 captured)


PERSONAL AND MOST SECRET MESSAGE FROM Mr CHURCHILL TO MARSHAL STALIN (no.317) "I have seen a distressing message from the Poles in Warsaw, who after ten days are still fighting against considerable German forces which have cut the city into three. They implore machine-guns and ammunition. Can you not give them some further help, as the distance from Italy is so very great?" (August 12th, 1944 )

The Potsdam Agreement was signed on this day in 1945. In connection with this, the Allied leaders planned the new postwar German government, resettled war territory boundaries, de facto annexed a quarter of pre-war Germany situated east of the Oder-Neisse line, and mandated and organized the expulsion of the millions of Germans who remained in the annexed territories and elsewhere in the east. They also ordered German demilitarization, denazification, industrial disarmament and settlements of war reparations. The Agreement included a Protocol which included administrative and territorial terms for Poland, as follows: "There should be a Provisional Government of National Unity recognized by all three powers, and that those Poles who were serving in British Army formations should be free to return to Poland. The provisional western border should be the Oder–Neisse line, with territories to the east of this excluded from the Soviet Occupation zone and placed under Polish and Soviet administration. Poland would receive former German territories in the north and west, but the final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland should await the peace settlement which eventually took place as the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany in 1990."


The Jubilee (Hebrew: יובל ‎ yovel) year (every 50th year) and the Sabbatical year (every seventh year) are Biblical commandments concerning ownership of land and slaves. The laws concerning the Sabbatical year are still observed by many religious Jews in the State of Israel, while the Jubilee has not been observed for many centuries. According to the Hebrew Bible, every seventh year, farmers in the land of Israel are commanded to let their land lie fallow, and slaves were freed. The celebration of the Jubilee is the fiftieth year, that is, the year after seven Sabbatical cycles.

In Roman Catholic tradition, a Jubilee is a year of remission of sins and also the punishment due to sin. [1]

"Jubilee" became closely associated with celebrations of emancipation from slavery during the American Civil War. [2]


Hitler, Adolf

[APRIL 20, 1889–APRIL 30, 1945]

German Führer, 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler's very first political document foreshadowed the Nazis' massive, ghastly genocide. In a letter dated September 16, 1919, the thirty-year-old lance corporal, then serving outside Munich in a political unit of the recently defeated German army, answered an inquiry about the Jews in postwar Germany by cautioning that they belonged to a deadly race scattered worldwide national defensive measures against them, though needful and urgent, would be mere palliatives pending their "total removal." Five years later, in his self-mythicizing Mein Kampf, Hitler claimed that he came to his deadly anti-Semitism through observation and reflection while a day laborer in prewar Vienna. However, just as no day labor has ever been documented for the street artist in Vienna, no credible evidence of anti-Semitism is on record for Hitler before the German military defeat of 1918.

Outwardly seen, nothing in Hitler's distinctive early circumstances or upbringing predisposed him to mass-murder Jews. His father, Alois, was born to an unwed housemaid in Graz and, according to rumor, her Jewish employer reportedly a skeptical Hitler attempted to disprove the rumor in 1930, but the effort backfired. In any case, his genocidal goal was set earlier. Alois grew up on a farm, and then made a career in the Austrian customs service, where he was reputedly bossy but liberal-minded. At age forty-seven, twice widowed with two young children in his charge, Alois married his twenty-five-year-old resident housekeeper and already pregnant mistress, Klara. She promptly bore him three children, all of whom perished in a diphtheria epidemic. Next came Adolf on April 20, 1889, and, after a five-year hiatus, a boy who died of the measles, then a girl who outlived Adolf. During the interlude following her tragic triple loss, Klara fretfully overmothered Adolf, leaving him affectively bound to her for life with a sense of special election and protection. Alois died in 1903, having retired to Linz. There, Adolf started school at the top of his class and gradually slid to the bottom, finishing late with a certificate that left him few career prospects. After two years at home idling, he went to Vienna in late September 1907 hoping to train at the painting school of the Academy of Fine Arts. He flunked the entrance examination upon arrival, but was settling in anyway however, his mother's suddenly worsening breast cancer brought him back to Linz.

Hitler's intense involvement the rest of that year with his mother's suffering and death at the hands of her kindly but inept Jewish doctor, Eduard Bloch, was the point of departure for his later genocidal animus against the stereotype he called "the Jew." Her cancer having metastasized to the lungs since, or even before, a mastectomy the previous January, Bloch duly pronounced it incurable. But Hitler persuaded Bloch that, if the patient was dying otherwise, a desperate remedy might as well be tried. Bloch obligingly packed iodoform onto her surgical wound almost daily for six-and-a-half weeks—a toxic, even lethal, regimen. She succumbed on December 21 after a prolonged agony. Just after her funeral, on Christmas Eve, Bloch collected the large balance due on his bill. Consciously Hitler felt only warm gratitude toward the hapless, compassionate doctor. However, all his later genocidal raging turned on three main themes, all dated 1907: the Jewish parasite (or cancer), the Jewish poison, and the Jewish profiteer.

Hitler's deadly hate for "the Jew," his take-off on Bloch, remained latent during his prewar years as a modest, self-taught view-painter in Vienna and later Munich, then his four years as a runner in a Bavarian regiment on the Western Front. He enjoyed good relations with Jewish comrades-in-arms including his last regimental adjutant, obtained for him an Iron Cross First Class in August 1918. His drastic turnabout dates from his gas poisoning near Wervicq in Flanders early on October 15, 1918. His eyes blindingly inflamed, Hitler suffered a nervous breakdown marked by depressive memories of his mother's death. Unlike several buddies gassed with him and treated topically close by the battlefield, Hitler was sent across Germany to Pomerania for psychiatric care. There Professor Edmund Forster, himself recently discharged from four years' service in Flanders, diagnosed Hitler's blindness as hysterical despite the regimental report that specified gas poisoning, perhaps because after some healing he relapsed into blindness at the news of the armistice on November 11. Through hypnosis, Forster called on Hitler to regain his eyesight by force of will because Germany needed him to triumph over her own disablement. He experienced Forster's therapy as a call from on high to save his mortally ailing Motherland. Within a year this summons took him into politics with the express aim of undoing Germany's defeat by removing the Jew from Germany and the world.

Hitler began by stressing the removal of Jews from Germany. Having infiltrated the small German Workers Party (soon to be renamed National Socialist German Workers Party) in September 1919 as an army spy, he fast became its star speaker, then its leader spewing infectious rage in trenchant slogans and throaty accents, he blamed the parasitic, poisonous, profiteering Jew for Germany's defeat. Removing the Jew would reverse defeat—such was his key precept. Because the defeat had come from the west while German armies were triumphing in the east, this precept already hinted at a renewed eastward push. Hitler began calling outright for eastward expansion in the spring of 1921—sparingly for starters, but when he transformed himself from a local Bavarian agitator to a would-be national leader after a year in jail for his failed Beerhall Putsch of November 1923, he scaled back his rhetoric against the Jew and instead talked up a supposed German need for more land. Hitler's new victory formula ran: Remove the divisive, destructive element from the body politic to restore its inner strength for eastward conquest. Shortly after the Nazis' electoral leap forward in September 1930 he muffled his expansionism in turn to call simply for regaining outward strength. Finally he stressed the "national community," his middle term between removing the Jew and expanding eastward, as a cover term for both. The two diluted end terms registered no less effectively with his listeners, however blurrily. Together they were the long and short of Hitlerism, its single message. That message above all else fueled Hitler's rise to total personal power over Germany by the mid-1930s, the ground rule of his regime being that his word was law.

Meanwhile, in Mein Kampf (1925–1926) and especially in an unpublished untitled book (1928), Hitler theoretically reconciled those two end terms of his politics. Whereas other peoples compete for land and ultimately for world conquest, he argued, the Jew breaks this law of nature, being stateless, parasitic, egalitarian, and unwarriorlike accordingly, nature mandates a "land grab" and a "Jew kill" both at once. The logic of this construction on its expansionist side was for Germany to ease Jews out, preferably to rival nations, so as to gain an edge in the struggle for the global reach needed to destroy the Jews altogether. It was emphatically not for Germany to kill Jews at home straightaway and thereby invite foreign reprisals, nor to push anti-Semitism abroad for the benefit of other peoples, let alone expend German resources ridding other nations of Jews. But logic could not always contain the animus against the Jew that took Hitler into politics in the first place. Thus he often called for destroying the Jew in Germany, or even abroad, before the expansionist battle was even joined. Mostly, though, he settled for ambiguities in his rhetoric such as "removing the Jew."

During his twelve-year dictatorship Hitler's policies betrayed the same tension between his hate for the Jew and its rational control for the sake of German expansion. Control predominated for roughly the first half of his rule, from the Havaara agreement of 1933 to the mission by Reichsbank President Schacht to London in late 1938, both aimed at facilitating Jewish emigration financially. Even the Nazis' internal discriminatory measures, including the much-publicized Jewish boycott of 1933 or Nuremberg Laws of 1935, served to induce Jews to emigrate voluntarily. Most such measures originated with lower authorities, though Hitler might intervene, as he did to prevent the crass marking of Jews or Jewish shops before 1941. However, he failed to curb the Reichskristallnacht pogrom of November 9, 1938, mounted by propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, which besmirched the regime even in German eyes. Thereafter, Jews were officially murdered only out of sight. At the same time, Hitler's Jewish policies took an impolitic turn overall: he stopped Schacht from sealing a deal on Jewish emigration, switched to exporting anti-Semitism rather than Jews, and on January 30, 1939, prophesied to the Reichstag "the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe" should war come. With this prophecy midway between easing Germany's Jews out and a world pogrom, hate definitively gained the ascendant.

By then it was evident that induced emigration was coming short: the Reich's Jew count was roughly cut in half by 1938, the Anschluss that March brought it back near its starting point. The absorption of the Sudeten-land that fall, then the establishment of a protectorate over Bohemia and Moravia the following March, and especially the occupation and partial annexation of western Poland beginning in September 1939, ruled out the emigration option conclusively. There are signs that Hitler considered starting mass exterminations during the Polish war—that he could hardly uphold his expansionist logic against so many helpless Jews already within his reach. But the noise and smoke of battle needed to cover mass shootings dwindled too fast. Open killings risked provoking the United States and even, as Hitler saw it, the Soviet Union, not to mention arousing the Germans themselves, whose reactions he feared even while the Holocaust was an open secret. He scrapped his doctrinaire subordination of his Jewish to his expansionist policy once and for all with the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, which enabled for mass executions of Jews in the guise of anti-partisan warfare. The exterminations were next mandated for all of German-controlled Europe and then only (reversing Hitler's original victory formula) for Germany itself.

A scholarly controversy developed in Germany in the 1970s between so-called "functionalists," who saw the Holocaust as having developed out of separate, often local, initiatives, and "intentionalists," who saw it as having been planned by Hitler from the first. The functionalist case is plausible insofar as Hitler did ordinarily allow events to take their course so long as they went his way. It remains that he aimed from his political beginnings to kill Jews even if he vacillated about which Jews to kill and when to kill them. In the end he used his war in the east as cover for his war on the Jews—his controlling political purpose. After first billing a Jew-purge in Germany as a means to German expansion, then implementing Jew-purges across Europe at the expense of German arms, he exited history in the resultant rubble and ashes, still enjoining Germans to keep the genocidal faith.


Watch the video: 101 - Japan is Getting Hungry, Barbarossa is Confused - WW2 - August 1, 1941 (May 2022).